23,940 research outputs found

    Bending Frustration of Lipid-Water Mesophases Based on Cubic Minimal Surfaces

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    Inverse bicontinuous cubic phases are ubiquitous in lipid-water mixtures and consist of a lipid bilayer forming a cubic minimal surface, thereby dividing space into two cubic networks of water channels. For small hydrocarbon chain lengths, the monolayers can be modeled as parallel surfaces to a minimal midsurface. The bending energy of the cubic phases is determined by the distribution of Gaussian curvature over the minimal midsurfaces which we calculate for seven different structures (G, D, P, I-WP, C(P), S and F-RD). We show that the free-energy densities of the structures G, D and P are considerably lower than those of the other investigated structures due to their narrow distribution of Gaussian curvature. The Bonnet transformation between G, D, and P implies that these phases coexist along a triple line, which also includes an excess water phase. Our model includes thermal membrane undulations. Our qualitative predictions remain unchanged when higher order terms in the curvature energy are included. Calculated phase diagrams agree well with the experimental results for 2:1 lauric acid/dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine and water.Comment: Revtex, 23 pages with 9 postscript figures included, to appear in Langmui

    The Effect of Unions on Productivity in the Public Sector: The Case of Municipal Libraries

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    [Excerpt] This paper represents our initial efforts at analyzing the effects of unions on productivity in the public sector. We first sketch an analytical framework that can be used to estimate these effects, focusing for expository purposes on municipal public libraries. We initially focus on libraries because considerable effort has been devoted to conceptualizing productivity measures for them and because of the availability of data to implement the framework. After discussing the analytical framework, we present preliminary estimtes of the effects of unions on productivity in public libraries based upon analyses of data from 71 municipal libraries in Massachusetts. We conclude by indicating how these analyses will be extended and the direction that we hope our future research will take

    Bayesian methods of astronomical source extraction

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    We present two new source extraction methods, based on Bayesian model selection and using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The first is a source detection filter, able to simultaneously detect point sources and estimate the image background. The second is an advanced photometry technique, which measures the flux, position (to sub-pixel accuracy), local background and point spread function. We apply the source detection filter to simulated Herschel-SPIRE data and show the filter's ability to both detect point sources and also simultaneously estimate the image background. We use the photometry method to analyse a simple simulated image containing a source of unknown flux, position and point spread function; we not only accurately measure these parameters, but also determine their uncertainties (using Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampling). The method also characterises the nature of the source (distinguishing between a point source and extended source). We demonstrate the effect of including additional prior knowledge. Prior knowledge of the point spread function increase the precision of the flux measurement, while prior knowledge of the background has onlya small impact. In the presence of higher noise levels, we show that prior positional knowledge (such as might arise from a strong detection in another waveband) allows us to accurately measure the source flux even when the source is too faint to be detected directly. These methods are incorporated in SUSSEXtractor, the source extraction pipeline for the forthcoming Akari FIS far-infrared all-sky survey. They are also implemented in a stand-alone, beta-version public tool that can be obtained at http://astronomy.sussex.ac.uk/∼\simrss23/sourceMiner\_v0.1.2.0.tar.gzComment: Accepted for publication by ApJ (this version compiled used emulateapj.cls

    Action for IIB Supergravity in 10 dimensions

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    We review the construction of a manifestly covariant, supersymmetric and SL(2R) invariant action for IIB supergravity in D=10.Comment: 9 pages, LaTeX, Talk given at "Quantum Aspects of Gauge Theories, Supersymmetry and Unification", Greece, September 199

    Domain walls and chaos in the disordered SOS model

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    Domain walls, optimal droplets and disorder chaos at zero temperature are studied numerically for the solid-on-solid model on a random substrate. It is shown that the ensemble of random curves represented by the domain walls obeys Schramm's left passage formula with kappa=4 whereas their fractal dimension is d_s=1.25, and therefore is NOT described by "Stochastic-Loewner-Evolution" (SLE). Optimal droplets with a lateral size between L and 2L have the same fractal dimension as domain walls but an energy that saturates at a value of order O(1) for L->infinity such that arbitrarily large excitations exist which cost only a small amount of energy. Finally it is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the ground state to small changes of order delta in the disorder is subtle: beyond a cross-over length scale L_delta ~ 1/delta the correlations of the perturbed ground state with the unperturbed ground state, rescaled by the roughness, are suppressed and approach zero logarithmically.Comment: 23 pages, 11 figure

    The Effect of Unions on Productivity in the Public Sector: The Case of Libraries

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    This paper presents an analytical framework that can be used to analyze the effects of unions on productivity in the public sector. Our initial focus is on public libraries because considerable effort has been devoted to conceptualizing library productivity measures and because of the availability of data to implement the framework. Preliminary estimates are presented based upon data from 71 municipal libraries in Massachusetts. We conclude by indicating the direction that our future research on the subject will take.

    Scale dependence of cosmological backreaction

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    Due to the non-commutation of spatial averaging and temporal evolution, inhomogeneities and anisotropies (cosmic structures) influence the evolution of the averaged Universe via the cosmological backreaction mechanism. We study the backreaction effect as a function of averaging scale in a perturbative approach up to higher orders. We calculate the hierarchy of the critical scales, at which 10% effects show up from averaging at different orders. The dominant contribution comes from the averaged spatial curvature, observable up to scales of 200 Mpc. The cosmic variance of the local Hubble rate is 10% (5%) for spherical regions of radius 40 (60) Mpc. We compare our result to the one from Newtonian cosmology and Hubble Space Telescope Key Project data.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures; v3: substantial modifications, new figure

    The essence of quintessence and the cost of compression

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    Standard two-parameter compressions of the infinite dimensional dark energy model space show crippling limitations even with current SN-Ia data. Firstly they cannot cope with rapid evolution - the best-fit to the latest SN-Ia data shows late and very rapid evolution to w_0 = -2.85. However all of the standard parametrisations (incorrectly) claim that this best-fit is ruled out at more than 2-sigma, primarily because they track it well only at very low redshifts, z < 0.2. Further they incorrectly rule out the observationally acceptable region w 1. Secondly the parametrisations give wildly different estimates for the redshift of acceleration, which vary from z_{acc}=0.14 to z_{acc}=0.59. Although these failings are largely cured by including higher-order terms (3 or 4 parameters) this results in new degeneracies which open up large regions of previously ruled-out parameter space. Finally we test the parametrisations against a suite of theoretical quintessence models. The widely used linear expansion in z is generally the worst, with errors of up to 10% at z=1 and 20% at z > 2. All of this casts serious doubt on the usefulness of the standard two-parameter compressions in the coming era of high-precision dark energy cosmology and emphasises the need for decorrelated compressions with at least three parameters.Comment: 7 pages, 4 colour figures, EmulateApJ; v2: includes Bayesian evidence analysis and table that were only present in published version, because of increased interest in Bayesian model comparison (no new material beyond the one in the published ApJL of 2004
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