3,871 research outputs found

    A human genome-wide library of local phylogeny predictions for whole-genome inference problems

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Many common inference problems in computational genetics depend on inferring aspects of the evolutionary history of a data set given a set of observed modern sequences. Detailed predictions of the full phylogenies are therefore of value in improving our ability to make further inferences about population history and sources of genetic variation. Making phylogenetic predictions on the scale needed for whole-genome analysis is, however, extremely computationally demanding.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In order to facilitate phylogeny-based predictions on a genomic scale, we develop a library of maximum parsimony phylogenies within local regions spanning all autosomal human chromosomes based on Haplotype Map variation data. We demonstrate the utility of this library for population genetic inferences by examining a tree statistic we call 'imperfection,' which measures the reuse of variant sites within a phylogeny. This statistic is significantly predictive of recombination rate, shows additional regional and population-specific conservation, and allows us to identify outlier genes likely to have experienced unusual amounts of variation in recent human history.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Recent theoretical advances in algorithms for phylogenetic tree reconstruction have made it possible to perform large-scale inferences of local maximum parsimony phylogenies from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. As results from the imperfection statistic demonstrate, phylogeny predictions encode substantial information useful for detecting genomic features and population history. This data set should serve as a platform for many kinds of inferences one may wish to make about human population history and genetic variation.</p

    Inference of Tumor Phylogenies from Genomic Assays on Heterogeneous Samples

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    Tumorigenesis can in principle result from many combinations of mutations, but only a few roughly equivalent sequences of mutations, or “progression pathways,” seem to account for most human tumors. Phylogenetics provides a promising way to identify common progression pathways and markers of those pathways. This approach, however, can be confounded by the high heterogeneity within and between tumors, which makes it difficult to identify conserved progression stages or organize them into robust progression pathways. To tackle this problem, we previously developed methods for inferring progression stages from heterogeneous tumor profiles through computational unmixing. In this paper, we develop a novel pipeline for building trees of tumor evolution from the unmixed tumor data. The pipeline implements a statistical approach for identifying robust progression markers from unmixed tumor data and calling those markers in inferred cell states. The result is a set of phylogenetic characters and their assignments in progression states to which we apply maximum parsimony phylogenetic inference to infer tumor progression pathways. We demonstrate the full pipeline on simulated and real comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data, validating its effectiveness and making novel predictions of major progression pathways and ancestral cell states in breast cancers

    Medoidshift clustering applied to genomic bulk tumor data.

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    Despite the enormous medical impact of cancers and intensive study of their biology, detailed characterization of tumor growth and development remains elusive. This difficulty occurs in large part because of enormous heterogeneity in the molecular mechanisms of cancer progression, both tumor-to-tumor and cell-to-cell in single tumors. Advances in genomic technologies, especially at the single-cell level, are improving the situation, but these approaches are held back by limitations of the biotechnologies for gathering genomic data from heterogeneous cell populations and the computational methods for making sense of those data. One popular way to gain the advantages of whole-genome methods without the cost of single-cell genomics has been the use of computational deconvolution (unmixing) methods to reconstruct clonal heterogeneity from bulk genomic data. These methods, too, are limited by the difficulty of inferring genomic profiles of rare or subtly varying clonal subpopulations from bulk data, a problem that can be computationally reduced to that of reconstructing the geometry of point clouds of tumor samples in a genome space. Here, we present a new method to improve that reconstruction by better identifying subspaces corresponding to tumors produced from mixtures of distinct combinations of clonal subpopulations. We develop a nonparametric clustering method based on medoidshift clustering for identifying subgroups of tumors expected to correspond to distinct trajectories of evolutionary progression. We show on synthetic and real tumor copy-number data that this new method substantially improves our ability to resolve discrete tumor subgroups, a key step in the process of accurately deconvolving tumor genomic data and inferring clonal heterogeneity from bulk data

    Diaphragmatic Adjacencies: Pulmonary Embolism Presenting as Abdominal Pain

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    Pulmonary embolism is a common yet potentially life-threatening diagnosis that should not be missed in the Emergency Department. Common presenting symptoms include dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, syncope or pre-syncope. Less often, however, presenting symptoms can include abdominal pain. A clinician should recognize that pain adjacent to the diaphragm (including the lower chest and upper abdomen), can be secondary to underlying pathology either above or below the diaphragm. Here we describe an unusual case of pleuritic, post-prandial, right upper quadrant abdominal pain that was a result of pulmonary embolism
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