375 research outputs found

    Methodological concerns regarding eye movement analysis illustrated with the assessment of training effects in inductive reasoning in at risk groups

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    Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrags werden Problematiken von Blickbewegungsanalysen anhand von Studien, welche Trainingseffekte im schlussfolgerndem Denken von Kindern mit und ohne Lernschwierigkeiten sowie Jugendlichen mit (leichter) geistiger Behinderung evaluieren, kritisch aufgezeigt. Das Trainieren von Regeln und Lösungsprozessen ist Bestandteil von dynamischen Tests, welche z.B. die FĂ€higkeit zum schlussfolgernden Denken messen. Die Evaluation der Trainingseffekte kann u.a. mit Blickbewegungsanalysen vorgenommen werden, allerdings ergeben sich dabei methodische Probleme. Diese hĂ€ngen unter anderem mit dem hĂ€ufigeren Verlust von Blickbewegungsaufzeichnungen, infolge von ungĂŒnstigen Testbedingungen bei der DurchfĂŒhrung von Studien mit Kindern oder Personen mit Behinderungen, zusammen. (DIPF/Orig.)In this article several difficulties are illustrated that may arise when using eye movement equipment to analyze changes in problem solving behavior of young children and adolescents with learning difficulties and/or intellectual disabilities as a result of training. Training of rules and procedures in analogical reasoning tasks is used, e.g., in dynamic measures of reasoning capacity. Several eye-movement studies investigating whether problem solving processes indeed change as a result of training are presented to illustrate some methodological concerns. These are related to data loss due to imperfect conditions when assessing young children or adolescents with disabilities, but also to the precision and validity of the eye-tracking data obtained. (DIPF/Orig.

    Teachers’ Implementation of Inclusive Teaching Practices as a Potential Predictor for Students’ Perception of Academic, Social and Emotional Inclusion

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    The aim of the study was to illustrate the impact of teachers’ implementation of differentiation and individualization (perceived by students) on students’ perception of their inclusion regarding their social inclusion, emotional wellbeing and academic self-concept. The study sample comprised 824 third-to-eighth-grade students [255 males (31%) and 569 females (69%)]. Around 10% of the sample (82) had special educational needs (SEN). Students’ perceived inclusion levels and academic self-concept were examined with the Arabic version of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ-S-AR). Students’ ratings of inclusive practices in their classroom were examined using the Arabic version of the Inclusive Teaching Practices Scale (ITPS). SEN students expressed lower perceived social inclusion, emotional inclusion, and academic self-concept in comparison with non-SEN students. Moreover, high levels of inclusive teaching practices strongly predicted students’ perceived emotional inclusion, social inclusion, and academic self-concept. The results of the study supported the importance of school-level inclusive teaching practices and their relation to students’ school experiences. It also highlighted the need for schools and teachers to work towards improved school-level inclusion experiences for SEN students

    DI (Differentiated Instruction) Does Matter! The Effects of DI on Secondary School Students’ Well-Being, Social Inclusion and Academic Self-Concept

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    In consideration of the substantial increase in students’ learning demands, teachers are urged to address student heterogeneity in their daily teaching practice by means of differentiated instruction (DI). The practice of DI, as a vehicle to achieve inclusive education, not only aims to support all students’ academic learning but also foster their social and emotional development. However, current research in the field of DI has mostly been limited to an examination of its effects on students’ achievement outcomes. Consequently, the potential impact of DI on students’ socio-emotional outcomes has, till now, received very little attention. In order to address this gap in the research, the current researchers seek to investigate the effects of DI on school students’ well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept. Survey participants in this study included 379 students from 23 inclusive and regular classes in secondary schools in Austria. Following multilevel analyses, the results have indicated that students’ rating of their teachers’ DI practice is positively associated with their school well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept. However, a t-test for dependent samples demonstrated that students perceive their teachers’ DI practice to be infrequent. Implications of the results along with further lines of research are also presented in this paper.Peer Reviewe

    Achievement and Integration of Students with Special Needs (SEN) in the Fifth Grade

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    In Styria 77.3% of all students with special needs are educated in integrated classrooms. Currently, it is not known much either about the school performance nor the active class participation of these students. This study examined 230 fifth grade students – 43 with and 187 students without special educational needs (SEN). Moreover, it is important to acknowledge that the available data for this study represents the first wave of larger longitudinal study. The school performance of the students with SEN ranged one standard deviation below the level of the students without SEN. All students felt emotionally well integrated in the school settings, but the differences in the degree of social integration were evident. In fact, the students with SEN mentioned that they got along well with their classmates less frequently than the students without SEN

    Österreichs Integrationsklassen: Kompetenzdefi zite durch soziale Benachteiligung? Ein Vergleich zwischen Integrations- und Regelklassen

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    Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Kapitels wurde anhand der österreichischen BildungsstandardĂŒberprĂŒfungen im Fach Deutsch fĂŒr SchĂŒler/innen der vierten und achten Schulstufe untersucht, inwiefern sich Regel- und Integrationsklassen voneinander unterscheiden. Zum einen zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass in Integrationsklassen (d. h. Klassen, in denen auch SchĂŒler/innen mit sonderpĂ€dagogischem Förderbedarf unterrichtet werden) eine stĂ€rkere soziale Benachteiligung vorherrscht als in Regelklassen. Zum anderen zeigt sich, dass leistungsschwache SchĂŒler/innen eher Integrationsklassen besuchen. Ein Ausblick auf die Fragestellungen fĂŒr das Fach Mathematik zeigt, dass die berichteten Hauptergebnisse, wenn auch in leicht verĂ€nderter Form, ĂŒbertragbar sind. Basierend auf den Analysen werden fĂŒr RegelschĂŒler/innen die Auswirkungen von HeterogenitĂ€t im Zusammenhang mit Klassenkompositionseffekten als Gelingensbedingung von Integrationsklassen zur Diskussion gestellt. (DIPF/Orig.

    What Do Teachers Think About Their Students’ Inclusion? Consistency of Students’ Self-Reports and Teacher Ratings

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    Venetz M, Zurbriggen C, Schwab S. What Do Teachers Think About Their Students’ Inclusion? Consistency of Students’ Self-Reports and Teacher Ratings. Frontiers in Psychology. 2019;10: 1637.The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency between the self-reports and teacher ratings of students’ emotional and social inclusion at school as well as for their academic self-concept. The German version of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) was administered to 329 grade 8 students (50.8% female, Mage = 14.5 years, SDage = 0.5 years) and their teachers. First, the three-dimensional structure of both PIQ versions was confirmed by confirmatory item factor analysis. The α and ω coefficients demonstrated good reliability for all scales. Second, a correlated trait-correlated method minus one model provided evidence that the method-specificity of teacher ratings was larger than the consistency between the self-reports and teacher ratings. Third, the results of a latent difference model indicated that general method effects can partly be explained by a student’s gender or special educational needs. Finally, the low consistency between self-reports and teacher rating is discussed

    Primary school students’ attitudes towards peers displaying hyperactivity: Examining impacts of homophily and inter‐group contact on students’ social inclusion

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    Earlier research has indicated that students displaying hyperactivity struggle with their social inclusion. To foster social inclusion, students’ attitudes as well as inter-group contact have been identified as possible key factors. In this study, the social inclusion of students who display hyperactivity in general and classmates’ attitudes towards such peers have been investigated. Data of 314 students (aged 9–11) and estimated dynamic social network models for the co-evolution of friendships and attitudes are relied on. Results reveal that students displaying hyperactivity are at risk of lower social inclusion. Results do not indicate that having friends or classmates who display hyperactivity is significantly associated with one's attitudes towards such peers in either causal direction

    Austrian Students’ Perceptions of Social Distancing and Their Emotional Experiences During Distance Learning Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic

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    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to far-reaching changes in various aspects of students’ lives. In the particular case of the educational field, classroom teaching was drastically shifted to a distance learning format. Consequently, students needed to deal with a completely different everyday school life. Learning was carried out online, which implied that students could not see some of their regular, important social contacts such as teachers, classmates or friends. It is already proven that such social distancing measures had impacts on students’ emotional experiences during the lockdown. Following a mixed-methods concurrent single-phase design, this study examined students’ perceptions of social distancing and their emotional experiences during the first school lockdown in Austria. Data from an online survey (n = 263 students) and from qualitative interviews (n = 56 students) were analyzed. The results show that distance learning drastically reduced interaction among students and between students and their teachers. Furthermore, the results indicate negative emotional experiences due to less social contact, increased learning pressures, and less structure. However, findings revealed that students also experience and perceived positive emotional experiences during distance learning because of more freedom, autonomy, and to some extent, less performance pressure. Based on the findings, the present study discusses possible perspectives on how to support students during and after distance learning, as well as further lines of research.Peer Reviewe