77 research outputs found

    Screening of sugar beet pre-breeding populations and breeding lines for resistance to Ditylenchus dipsaci penetration and reproduction

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    Ditylenchus dipsaci is an economically important plant-parasitic nematode affecting European sugar beets. To date, no sugar beet cultivars carrying resistance against D. dipsaci are available to farmers. To find potentially resistant sugar beet lines restricting reproduction and penetration of D. dipsaci, three consecutive in vivo bioassays were carried out. The first experiment determined the penetration rate of D. dipsaci in 79 breeding lines and 14 pre-breeding populations. Based on these results, D. dipsaci penetration and reproduction resistance of eight genotypes was intensively investigated. It could be demonstrated that none of the genotypes showed resistance towards D. dipsaci. However, a high variation of the penetration rate by D. dipsaci was observed among the genotypes. The breeding line ‘DIT_119’ effectively reduced D. dipsaci penetration (34.4 ± 8.8 nematodes/plant at 22 days post-planting) compared to the susceptible control (109.0 ± 16.9) while ensuring a yield comparable to non-inoculated plants. However, the breeding line ‘DIT_119’ did not reduce D. dipsaci reproduction. The paternal line of the cultivar BERETTA KWS, demonstrating a high tolerance to D. dipsaci crown rot symptoms, did not reduce penetration and reproduction. Thus, no correlation can be established between reduced penetration rates, reproduction, and tolerance to D. dipsaci. This study provides an essential basis for the development of resistant sugar beet cultivars to D. dipsaci. The variations observed among genotypes now need to be confirmed with larger-scale screenings

    Lowering the sintering temperature of barium strontium titanate bulk ceramics by barium strontium titanate-gel and BaCu(B₂O₅)

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    In this paper the influence of barium strontium titanate (BST) xerogel as a sinter additive and BaCu(B2_{2}O5_{5}) (BCB) as a liquid phase sintering aid on the sintering behavior of BST bulk ceramics is investigated. BST as well as BCB powders were synthesized via a mixed oxide route and BST gel via a sol-gel process. Compared to pure BST bulk ceramics, BST gel reduces the sintering start (onset temperature) by up to 174°C and increases the density for a sintering temperature of 1200°C. By adding BCB to the BST powder the sintering was completed much faster and the onset temperatures were reduced by 281°C and 312°C for 1 mol. % and 2.5 mol. %, respectively. With 2.5 mol. % BCB, the highest density of 96 % (5.41 g∙cm−3^{-3}) was achieved at 950°C

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Transport, Atmosphere and Climate

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    The "4th International Conference on Transport, Atmosphere and Climate (TAC-4)" held in Bad Kohlgrub (Germany), 2015, was organised with the objective of updating our knowledge on the impacts of transport on the composition of the atmosphere and on climate, three years after the TAC-3 conference in Prien am Chiemsee (Germany). The TAC-4 conference covered all aspects of the impact of the different modes of transport (aviation, road transport, shipping etc.) on atmospheric chemistry, microphysics, radiation and climate, in particular

    Limits on the release of Rb isotopes from a zeolite based 83mKr calibration source for the XENON project

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    The isomer 83mKr with its half-life of 1.83 h is an ideal calibration source for a liquid noble gas dark matter experiment like the XENON project. However, the risk of contamination of the detector with traces of the much longer lived mother isotop 83Rb (86.2 d half-life) has to be ruled out. In this work the release of 83Rb atoms from a 1.8 MBq 83Rb source embedded in zeolite beads has been investigated. To do so, a cryogenic trap has been connected to the source for about 10 days, after which it was removed and probed for the strongest 83Rb gamma-rays with an ultra-sensitive Germanium detector. No signal has been found. The corresponding upper limit on the released 83Rb activity means that the investigated type of source can be used in the XENON project and similar low-background experiments as 83mKr generator without a significant risk of contaminating the detector. The measurements also allow to set upper limits on the possible release of the isotopes 84Rb and 86Rb, traces of which were created alongside the production of 83Rb at the Rez cyclotron.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, submitted to Journal of Instrumentatio

    Chemokine Transfer by Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells Contributes to the Recruitment of CD4+ T Cells into the Murine Liver

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    Leukocyte adhesion and transmigration are central features governing immune surveillance and inflammatory reactions in body tissues. Within the liver sinusoids, chemokines initiate the first crucial step of T-cell migration into the hepatic tissue. We studied molecular mechanisms involved in endothelial chemokine supply during hepatic immune surveillance and liver inflammation and their impact on the recruitment of CD4+ T cells into the liver. In the murine model of Concanavalin A-induced T cell-mediated hepatitis, we showed that hepatic expression of the inflammatory CXC chemokine ligands (CXCL)9 and CXCL10 strongly increased whereas homeostatic CXCL12 significantly decreased. Consistently, CD4+ T cells expressing the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 accumulated within the inflamed liver tissue. In histology, CXCL9 was associated with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) which represent the first contact site for T-cell immigration into the liver. LSEC actively transferred basolaterally internalized CXCL12, CXCL9 and CXCL10 via clathrin- coated vesicles to CD4+ T cells leading to enhanced transmigration of CXCR4+ total CD4+ T cells and CXCR3+ effector/memory CD4+ T cells, respectively in vitro. LSEC-expressed CXCR4 mediated CXCL12 transport and blockage of endothelial CXCR4 inhibited CXCL12-dependent CD4+ T-cell transmigration. In contrast, CXCR3 was not involved in the endothelial transport of its ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10. The clathrin-specific inhibitor chlorpromazine blocked endothelial chemokine internalization and CD4+ T-cell transmigration in vitro as well as migration of CD4+ T cells into the inflamed liver in vivo. Moreover, hepatic accumulation of CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells during T cell-mediated hepatitis was strongly reduced after administration of chlorpromazine. These data demonstrate that LSEC actively provide perivascularly expressed homeostatic and inflammatory chemokines by CXCR4- and clathrin-dependent intracellular transport mechanisms thereby contributing to the hepatic recruitment of CD4+ T-cell populations during immune surveillance and liver inflammation

    Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

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    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (rg =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness

    Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals

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    Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease

    Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association

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    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five novel loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci are also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (ρgenetic=0.748), which indicated a similar genetic background and allowed for the identification of four additional loci through meta-analysis (Ncombined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, and enriched near genes involved in growth pathways including PI3K–AKT signaling. These findings identify biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and provide genetic support for theories on brain reserve and brain overgrowth

    Modellierung mit EMF – Best Practices

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    Code-Generierung ist schön -- aber nicht ausreichend. Große Teile einer Anwendung mĂŒssen immer per Hand implementiert werden. Mit dem Eclipse Modeling Framework können Entwickler nicht nur effizient modellieren, sondern auch generierten und manuell geschriebenen Code sauber voneinander trennen

    Das Regionalfenster – Ein geeignetes Instrument zur Herkunftskennzeichnung?

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    Die vorliegende Arbeit „Das Regionalfenster – Ein geeignetes Instrument zur Herkunftskennzeichnung?“ setzt sich aus zwei Theorieteilen, der empirischen Datenerhebung und einer Diskussion der Ergebnisse zusammen. In dem ersten Theorieteil werden grundlegenden Begrifflichkeiten erklĂ€rt. Zum einen was RegionalitĂ€t ist und ihre Relevanz. Zum anderen wird erlĂ€utert was ein Lebensmittelsiegel ist und welche Funktionen es hat. Der zweite Theorieteil beschĂ€ftigt sich mit der Darstellung des Regionalfenster e.V.. Es werden die Kriterien hinter der Kennzeichnung erlĂ€utert. In demselben Abschnitt wird auch eine Einblick in die vom Regionalfenster e.V. durchgefĂŒhrten Erhebung aufgezeigt und ein Vergleich zu anderen Lebensmittelkennzeichnungen gezogen. In dem vierten Kapitel dieser Arbeit wird die Methodik der Datenerhebung aufgefĂŒhrt. Anhand der folgenden Forschungsfragen werden die Daten analysiert. Forschungsfrage 1: Ist das Regionalfenster in SĂŒddeutschland bekannter als in Norddeutschland? Forschungsfrage 2: Ist das Regionalfenster bekannter als die Kennzeichnung „Unsere Heimat – echt & gut“? Forschungsfrage 3: Wird die Transparenz des Regionalfensters höher empfunden als von der Kennzeichnung „Unsere Heimat – echt & gut“? Forschungsfrage 4: Wird das Regionalfenstern von Verbrauchern bevorzugt gekauft? Die Wahl der Standorte fĂŒr die Erhebung, sowie die Stichprobenwahl wird aufgezeigt und der Aufbau Fragebogen erlĂ€utert. In dem Unterkapitel 4.2 werden die Ergebnisse der empirischen Erhebung aufgezeigt. Bei der Erhebung wurde festgestellt, dass das Regionalfenster weder in Norddeutschland noch in SĂŒddeutschland wirklich bei den Verbrauchern bekannt ist. Dennoch wird die Kennzeichnung als transparenter empfunden als die firmeneigenen Kennzeichnungen von REWE oder EDEKA. Bei der Frage nach der Kaufentscheidung wurde festgestellt, dass das Regionalfenster, wenn es alleine auf einer Verpackung aufgedruckt ist zu einer positiven Kaufentscheidung der Verbraucher betrĂ€gt. Ist zusĂ€tzlich die Kennzeichnung „geprĂŒfte QualitĂ€t – Bayern“ aufgedruckt fĂ€llt die Entscheidung, zur einfachen Kennzeichnung mit dem Regionalfenster, der Verbraucher nicht eindeutig aus. Fast alle der interviewten Personen finden eine verpflichtende Herkunftskennzeichnung als wichtig. 44 Die Ergebnisse der Befragung werden anschließend im Kapitel 5 genauer betrachtet. Zum Ende der Arbeit werden Anmerkungen, VerbesserungsvorschlĂ€ge fĂŒr die Regionalfensterkennzeichnung erlĂ€utert. Im Unterkapitel 5.2 werden die Grenzer dieser Arbeit aufgezeigt.This bachelor thesis concerns the topic “the Regionalfenster – a useful instrument to label the origin?” The bachelor thesis is divided into two theoretical parts and one empirical study as well as a discussion of the results. In the first part of the theoretical part the basic terms are explained. First, the regionality and its relevance are point out. Second, food labels and their characters are outlined. The second part of the theoretical part includes the description of the Regionalfenster e.V. and highlights the main criteria of this label. This bachelor thesis reveals an already completed study by the Regionalfenster e.V. and draws comparisons to other food labels. In the fourth chapter the empirical study is descripted. The results are discussed and analysed with a look on the study by the Regionalfenster e.V. Research question 1: Is the Regionalfenster more known in Southern Germany as in Northern Germany? Research question 2: Is the Regionalfenster more well known as the label „Unsere Heimat – echt & gut“? Research question 3: Does the Regionalfenster gets more transparency advice as the label „Unsere Heimat“? Research question 4: Does the Regionalfenstern will be more preferred while buying food? The choice of the location from the realizated study will be explained and the sample of the interviewed people. After that the structure of the questionnaire will be explained. In the chapter 4.2 the result are shown. One major result of the study is that the Regionalfenster is not better known in northern Germany than in south Germany. Nevertheless the consumers feel that the Regionalfenster label is more transparent than the labels by the food trade REWE or EDEKA. The customers prefer an obligated label for regional food. The results of the study will be analysed in the chapter 5. In the end of the bachelor thesis there are given some explanatory notes and some ideas for the improvement of the Regionalfenster label
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