4,358 research outputs found

    Liquidity requirements and payment delays - participant type dependent preferences

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    The paper presents an analysis of the trade-offs of participants of different type between payment delay and liquidity requirement on the basis of synthetically generated data. The generation of the synthetic transaction data set for a simple RTGS system is described and calibrated using real world parameters. The payment system is simulated for various liquidity levels and it is shown that participants of different size in terms of transaction volume and value will have different optimal liquidity requirements, as the payment delays they face for each liquidity level will be different. This is shown using indifference curves between payment delay and liquidity requirements. JEL Classification: C15, C5, E58, L14, L41, L51competition, data generation, oversight, Payment system, Simulation

    Mobile transitions : exploring synergies for urban sustainability research

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    Urban sustainability approaches focusing on a wide range of topics such as infrastructure and mobility, green construction and neighbourhood planning, or urban nature and green amenities have attracted scholarly interest for over three decades. Recent debates on the role of cities in climate change mitigation have triggered new attempts to conceptually and methodologically grasp the cross-sectorial and cross-level interplay of enrolled actors. Within these debates, urban and economic geographers have increasingly adopted co-evolutionary approaches such as the social studies of technology (SST or ‘transition studies’). Their plea for more spatial sensitivity of the transition approach has led to promising proposals to adapt geographic perspectives to case studies on urban sustainability. This paper advocates engagement with recent work in urban studies, specifically policy mobility, to explore conceptual and methodological synergies. It emphasises four strengths of an integrated approach: (1) a broadened understanding of innovations that emphasises not only processes of knowledge generation but also of knowledge transfer through (2) processes of learning, adaptation and mutation, (3) a relational understanding of the origin and dissemination of innovations focused on the complex nature of cities and (4) the importance of individual actors as agents of change and analytical scale that highlights social processes of innovation. The notion of urban assemblages further allows the operationalisation of both the relational embeddedness of local policies as well as their cross-sectoral actor constellations

    Scaling diagram for the localization length at a band edge

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    A weak-coupling scaling diagram for the Lyapunov exponent and the integrated density of states near a band edge of a random Jacobi matrix is obtained. The analysis is based on the use of a Fokker-Planck operator describing the drift-diffusion of the Pr\"ufer phases

    Random Lie group actions on compact manifolds: A perturbative analysis

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    A random Lie group action on a compact manifold generates a discrete time Markov process. The main object of this paper is the evaluation of associated Birkhoff sums in a regime of weak, but sufficiently effective coupling of the randomness. This effectiveness is expressed in terms of random Lie algebra elements and replaces the transience or Furstenberg's irreducibility hypothesis in related problems. The Birkhoff sum of any given smooth function then turns out to be equal to its integral w.r.t. a unique smooth measure on the manifold up to errors of the order of the coupling constant. Applications to the theory of products of random matrices and a model of a disordered quantum wire are presented.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/10-AOP544 the Annals of Probability (http://www.imstat.org/aop/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org