37,316 research outputs found

    Detonation Diffraction Through a Mixture Gradient

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    A simple one-dimensional model of a self-propagating gaseous detonation consists of a shock wave tightly coupled to a reaction zone, propagating through a combustible gas mixture as shown in Fig. 1 (Strehlow 1984). A feedback mechanism exists in that the shock wave generates the thermodynamic conditions under which the gas combusts, and the energy release from the reaction zone maintains the strength of the shock This is in contrast to a flame, or deflagrative combustion, in which thermal and species transport processes dominate. Given a particular set of initial conditions, a self-propagating detonation wave travels at a constant Chapman-Jouguet velocity (VCJ) on the order of a few thousand meters per second, with associated pressures and temperatures of tens of bar and several thousand degrees, respectively. A detonation is actually a three-dimensional shock-reaction zone complex with a dynamic wavefront composed of curved incident, mach stem, and transverse shock waves as depicted in Fig. 2 (Strehlow 1970). The transverse shocks sweep across the wavefront and the triple-point paths form a diamond-shaped cellular pattern. The cell width [Greek lambda] is a characteristic length scale of detonations, indicative of the coupling between gasdynamic and chemical processes

    Factors that Determine Preschool Teacher Self-Efficacy in an Urban School District

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    The aim of the present study is to determine what teacher variables are predictive of preschool teacher self-efficacy in an urban school district. A total of 83 preschool teachers participated in the study. Teacher variables, such as years of teaching experience, job satisfaction, location of employment, age, and self-efficacy were included in a series of ANOVA analyses. Linear regression modeling reported years of teaching experience outside the birth-2nd grade setting (β= -.232, t(1,79) = -2.124, p\u3c .05) and job satisfaction (β = .294, t(2,78) = 2.793, p\u3c .01) were statistically significant predictors of preschool teacher self-efficacy. This study found that teachers with a greater amount of teaching experience outside of the birth-2nd setting feel less efficacious about themselves and their abilities to positively influence student achievement and outcomes in the preschool classroom. Further policy implications, such as hiring practices are discussed

    Evolutionary Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

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    There are two distinct approaches to solving reinforcement learning problems, namely, searching in value function space and searching in policy space. Temporal difference methods and evolutionary algorithms are well-known examples of these approaches. Kaelbling, Littman and Moore recently provided an informative survey of temporal difference methods. This article focuses on the application of evolutionary algorithms to the reinforcement learning problem, emphasizing alternative policy representations, credit assignment methods, and problem-specific genetic operators. Strengths and weaknesses of the evolutionary approach to reinforcement learning are presented, along with a survey of representative applications

    Automated Classification of Transient Contamination in Stationary Acoustic Data

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    An automated procedure for the classification of transient contamination of stationary acoustic data is proposed and analyzed. The procedure requires the assumption that the stationary acoustic data of interest can be modeled as a band-limited, Gaussian random process. It also requires that the transient contamination be of higher variance than the acoustic data of interest. When these assumptions are satisfied, it is a blind separation procedure, aside from the initial input specifying how to subdivide the time series of interest. No a priori threshold criterion is required. Simulation results show that for a sufficient number of blocks, the method performs well, as long as the occasional false positive or false negative is acceptable. The effectiveness of the procedure is demonstrated with an application to experimental wind tunnel acoustic test data which are contaminated by hydrodynamic gusts

    The gradational history of southern Ismenius Lacus

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    Two epochs of accelerated gradation affected the geomorphic evolution of southern Ismenius Lacus. These periods of enhanced gradational activity were likely related to periods of more clement climate induced by release of either recycled exogenic or juvenile endogenic atmospheric volatiles. Variations in the intensity and duration of gradation during the second epoch are indicated by the variability in the timing of cessation and degree of air fall deposit removal across the study area. Overall intensity of gradation decreased through successive epochs based on: (1) the decreasing diameter at which cumulative statistics from the respective surfaces cease to follow the expected production function; and (2) the decrease in size/increase in density of preserved valley networks incised into surfaces of differing age. A comparable decrease in valley density with time has been noted in the Isidis region

    Properties of optically selected BL Lac candidates from the SDSS

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    \textbf{Context.} Deep optical surveys open the avenue for find large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. \textbf{Aims.} In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. \textbf{Methods.} We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV SEDs, and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved S/N with respect to the SDSS spectra. \textbf{Results.} At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag de- pending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDS for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5log10(νpeak)1613.5 \leq \mathrm{log}_{10}(\nu_{\mathrm{peak}}) \leq 16 with a peak at log1014.5\mathrm{log}_{10} \sim 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs.Comment: Accepted for publication in A\&