109 research outputs found

    Complexity of commuting Hamiltonians on a square lattice of qubits

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    We consider the computational complexity of Hamiltonians which are sums of commuting terms acting on plaquettes in a square lattice of qubits, and we show that deciding whether the ground state minimizes the energy of each local term individually is in the complexity class NP. That is, if the ground states has this property, this can be proven using a classical certificate which can be efficiently verified on a classical computer. Different to previous results on commuting Hamiltonians, our certificate proves the existence of such a state without giving instructions on how to prepare it.Comment: 16 pages, 12 figures. v2: Minor corrections. Accepted version, Journal-Ref adde

    Simplex Z_2 spin liquids on the Kagome lattice with Entangled Pair States: spinon and vison coherence lengths, topological entropy and gapless edge modes

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    Gapped Z_2 spin liquids have been proposed as candidates for the ground-state of the S=1/2 quantum antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice. We extend the use of Projected Entangled Pair States to construct (on the cylinder)Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) states including both nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor singlet bonds. Our ansatz -- dubbed "simplex spin liquid" -- allows for an asymmetry between the two types of triangles (of order 2-3% in the energy density after optimization) leading to the breaking of inversion symmetry. We show that the topological Z_2 structure is still preserved and, by considering the presence or the absence of spinon and vison lines along an infinite cylinder, we explicitly construct four orthogonal RVB Minimally Entangled States. The spinon and vison coherence lengths are extracted from a finite size scaling w.r.t the cylinder perimeter of the energy splittings of the four sectors and are found to be of the order of the lattice spacing. The entanglement spectrum of a partitioned (infinite) cylinder is found to be gapless suggesting the occurrence, on a cylinder with {\it real} open boundaries, of gapless edge modes formally similar to Luttinger liquid (non-chiral) spin and charge modes. When inversion symmetry is spontaneously broken, the RVB spin liquid exhibits an extra Ising degeneracy, which might have been observed in recent exact diagonalisation studies.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figures - v2 with moderate revision of abstract, text and conclusio

    Gapped Z2Z_2 spin liquid in the breathing kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

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    We investigate the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice with breathing anisotropy (i.e. with weak and strong triangular units), constructing an improved simplex Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) ansatz by successive applications (up to three times) of local quantum gates which implement a filtering operation on the bare nearest-neighbor RVB state. The resulting Projected Entangled Pair State involves a small number of variational parameters (only one at each level of application) and preserves full lattice and spin-rotation symmetries. Despite its simple analytic form, the simplex RVB provides very good variational energies at strong and even intermediate breathing anisotropy. We show that it carries Z2Z_2 topological order which does not fade away under the first few applications of the quantum gates, suggesting that the RVB topological spin liquid becomes a competing ground state candidate for the kagome antiferromagnet at large breathing anisotropy

    Quantum proofs can be verified using only single qubit measurements

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    QMA (Quantum Merlin Arthur) is the class of problems which, though potentially hard to solve, have a quantum solution which can be verified efficiently using a quantum computer. It thus forms a natural quantum version of the classical complexity class NP (and its probabilistic variant MA, Merlin-Arthur games), where the verifier has only classical computational resources. In this paper, we study what happens when we restrict the quantum resources of the verifier to the bare minimum: individual measurements on single qubits received as they come, one-by-one. We find that despite this grave restriction, it is still possible to soundly verify any problem in QMA for the verifier with the minimum quantum resources possible, without using any quantum memory or multiqubit operations. We provide two independent proofs of this fact, based on measurement based quantum computation and the local Hamiltonian problem, respectively. The former construction also applies to QMA1_1, i.e., QMA with one-sided error.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figur

    Semionic resonating valence bond states

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    The nature of the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAFM) is under ongoing debate. While recent evidence points towards a Z_2 topological spin liquid, the exact nature of the topological phase is still unclear. In this paper, we introduce semionic Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) states, this is, Resonating Valence Bond states which are in the Z_2 ordered double-semion phase, and study them using Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). We investigate their physics and study their suitability as an ansatz for the HAFM, as compared to a conventional RVB state which is in the Toric Code Z_2 topological phase. In particular, we find that a suitably optimized "semionic simplex RVB" outperforms the equally optimized conventional "simplex RVB" state, and that the entanglement spectrum (ES) of the semionic RVB behaves very differently from the ES of the conventional RVB, which suggests to use the ES to discriminate the two phases. Finally, we also discuss the possible relevance of space group symmetry breaking in valence bond wavefunctions with double-semion topological order.Comment: 14 pages, 21 figures. v2: minor correction

    ZN\mathbb{Z}_N symmetry breaking in Projected Entangled Pair State models

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    We consider Projected Entangled Pair State (PEPS) models with a global ZN\mathbb Z_N symmetry, which are constructed from ZN\mathbb Z_N-symmetric tensors and are thus ZN\mathbb Z_N-invariant wavefunctions, and study the occurence of long-range order and symmetry breaking in these systems. First, we show that long-range order in those models is accompanied by a degeneracy in the so-called transfer operator of the system. We subsequently use this degeneracy to determine the nature of the symmetry broken states, i.e., those stable under arbitrary perturbations, and provide a succinct characterization in terms of the fixed points of the transfer operator (i.e.\ the different boundary conditions) in the individual symmetry sectors. We verify our findings numerically through the study of a Z3\mathbb Z_3-symmetric model, and show that the entanglement Hamiltonian derived from the symmetry broken states is quasi-local (unlike the one derived from the symmetric state), reinforcing the locality of the entanglement Hamiltonian for gapped phases.Comment: 11 page

    Study of anyon condensation and topological phase transitions from a Z4\mathbb{Z}_4 topological phase using Projected Entangled Pair States

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    We use Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) to study topological quantum phase transitions. The local description of topological order in the PEPS formalism allows us to set up order parameters which measure condensation and deconfinement of anyons, and serve as a substitute for conventional order parameters. We apply these order parameters, together with anyon-anyon correlation functions and some further probes, to characterize topological phases and phase transitions within a family of models based on a Z4\mathbb Z_4 symmetry, which contains Z4\mathbb Z_4 quantum double, toric code, double semion, and trivial phases. We find a diverse phase diagram which exhibits a variety of different phase transitions of both first and second order which we comprehensively characterize, including direct transitions between the toric code and the double semion phase.Comment: 21+6 page

    The computational complexity of density functional theory

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    Density functional theory is a successful branch of numerical simulations of quantum systems. While the foundations are rigorously defined, the universal functional must be approximated resulting in a `semi'-ab initio approach. The search for improved functionals has resulted in hundreds of functionals and remains an active research area. This chapter is concerned with understanding fundamental limitations of any algorithmic approach to approximating the universal functional. The results based on Hamiltonian complexity presented here are largely based on \cite{Schuch09}. In this chapter, we explain the computational complexity of DFT and any other approach to solving electronic structure Hamiltonians. The proof relies on perturbative gadgets widely used in Hamiltonian complexity and we provide an introduction to these techniques using the Schrieffer-Wolff method. Since the difficulty of this problem has been well appreciated before this formalization, practitioners have turned to a host approximate Hamiltonians. By extending the results of \cite{Schuch09}, we show in DFT, although the introduction of an approximate potential leads to a non-interacting Hamiltonian, it remains, in the worst case, an NP-complete problem.Comment: Contributed chapter to "Many-Electron Approaches in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics: A Multidisciplinary View
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