40 research outputs found

    From Lost Letters to Conditional E-Mail Responses: A Method to Assess Biased Behavior Online

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    This article introduces the Conditional E-mail Response Technique (CERT) as a systematic, hidden observation technique to measure behavioral tendencies. Although CERT derives from older techniques such as lost-letter/lost-e-mail techniques, we show how CERT is unique: each participant receives several e-mails with varying content, allowing the researcher to observe response rates and valence as a function of the manipulated content. Our study investigated discrimination against foreigners in the apartment rental market in Heidelberg (a German university city) by recording lessors' (non-) responses to 600 e-mails from fake applicants. Each owner (N = 120) received five applications for a one-room apartment via e-mail. Applicants' ethnic identities were communicated through their names. The results showed a remarkable bias against foreign names compared to German names. The response rates for foreign applicants were almost half that for German applicants (response rates were 78% for German names compared to 44-54% for American, Italian, Russian, and Turkish names). The relative risk of a rejecting response was up to eight times higher for e-mails appearing to come from foreigners. Applicants with foreign names were noticeably more likely to receive either no response or a negative response, that is, to have a negative outcome. There were also differences among the foreign applicant groups. We discuss the implications, ethical considerations, and advantages of CERT compared to other related techniques, as well as possible future uses

    Diskriminierung T√ľrkischst√§mmiger auf dem K√∂lner Wohnungsmarkt: Effektivit√§t von Gegenma√ünahmen

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    Benachteiligung von T√ľrken auf dem K√∂lner Wohnungsmarkt kann viele Gr√ľnde haben. In einer Vorstudie untersuchten wir m√∂gliche Gr√ľnde, die Vermieter gegen Angeh√∂rige ethnischer Minderheiten vorbringen k√∂nnten. Darauf aufbauend wurden in einem verdeckten Feldexperiment entsprechende Gegenma√ünahmen erprobt. Mit einer Bitte um Besichtigungstermine wurden insgesamt 384 E-Mails an N = 96 Anbieter (Vermieter, Wohnungsmakler) verschickt. Jeweils eine der vier E-Mails pro Studienteilnehmer war von einem vermeintlich Deutschen, die anderen drei E-Mails waren verschiedene E-Mail-Vignetten angeblich t√ľrkischer Bewerber. Neben ethnischer Diskriminierung im Raum K√∂ln (geringerer Antwortwahrscheinlichkeit, seltenere Besichtigungszusagen) konnte auch die grunds√§tzliche Wirksamkeit individueller Gegenma√ünahmen durch E-Mail-Inhalt und -L√§nge belegt werden.Many reasons may justify landlords' discrimination against Turks on Cologne's apartment rental market. A pretest surveyed possible concerns landlords might have to put ethnic minorities at a disadvantage. We tested the effectiveness of corresponding countermeasures in the main study. We surveyed N = 96 participants (landlords and estate agents) with a total of 384 e-mails, asking for inspection dates. One of the four e-mails each participant received was from an alleged German. The other three e-mails were from alleged Turkish applicants. Apart from confirming a bias in line with ethnical discrimination, there was evidence for the efficacy of countermeasures

    Search for single production of vector-like quarks decaying into Wb in pp collisions at s=8\sqrt{s} = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Measurement of the W boson polarisation in ttňČt\bar{t} events from pp collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 8 TeV in the lepton + jets channel with ATLAS