809 research outputs found

    THE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT (The Coming Death of Production Management Education)

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    Production management, taught in nearly all colleges of business administration, is not a popular course. One reason it is not popular is that it does not relate to the typical young student\u27s life experiences. This typical student has for 18 years or more been a social animal, and thus he can relate to college courses in the sociopsychological realm. The rare student who has considerable work experience is the only one likely to appreciate and perhaps even enjoy a course in production management (or operations management, as it is called in some schools). But this kind of problem is found in many fields: engineering, the physical sciences, foreign languages, etc. The instructor in such areas tends to shrug his shoulders and occasionally express the forlorn wish that more students would go to work for a few years before entering college

    Reflections on the 1976 Swine Flu Vaccination Program

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    The swine flu vaccination program has implications for the current pandemic preparedness

    The interaction of lean and building information modeling in construction

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    Lean construction and Building Information Modeling are quite different initiatives, but both are having profound impacts on the construction industry. A rigorous analysis of the myriad specific interactions between them indicates that a synergy exists which, if properly understood in theoretical terms, can be exploited to improve construction processes beyond the degree to which it might be improved by application of either of these paradigms independently. Using a matrix that juxtaposes BIM functionalities with prescriptive lean construction principles, fifty-six interactions have been identified, all but four of which represent constructive interaction. Although evidence for the majority of these has been found, the matrix is not considered complete, but rather a framework for research to explore the degree of validity of the interactions. Construction executives, managers, designers and developers of IT systems for construction can also benefit from the framework as an aid to recognizing the potential synergies when planning their lean and BIM adoption strategies

    Does Sensationalism Affect Executive Compensation? Evidence from Pay Ratio Disclosure Reform

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    Beginning in 2018, publicly-traded U.S. firms were required to report the ratio of the chief executive officer’s (CEO) compensation to that of the median employee’s compensation in the annual proxy statement. Our study examines the effect of the mandated pay ratio disclosure on executive compensation. We find that pay ratio disclosure leads to declines in both total compensation and pay-for-performance sensitivity for CEOs relative to chief financial officers (CFOs). Our effects are strongest for firms that are more sensitive to political pressure. Taken together, our paper provides the first evidence that pay ratio disclosure achieves regulators’ goal of curtailing CEO compensation but also leads to an unintended decline in pay-for-performance sensitivity

    Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease

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    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with lifethreatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation in the context of catabolic stress associated with non-specific illness. The mechanisms underlying this decompensation and brain injury are poorly understood. Using recently developed mouse models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease, we assessed biochemical, behavioural and neuropathological changes that occurred during encephalopathy in these mice. Here, we show that rapid brain leucine accumulation displaces other essential amino acids resulting in neurotransmitter depletion and disruption of normal brain growth and development. A novel approach of administering norleucine to heterozygous mothers of classic maple syrup urine disease pups reduced branched-chain amino acid accumulation in milk as well as blood and brain of these pups to enhance survival. Similarly, norleucine substantially delayed encephalopathy in intermediate maple syrup urine disease mice placed on a high protein diet that mimics the catabolic stress shown to cause encephalopathy in human maple syrup urine disease. Current findings suggest two converging mechanisms of brain injury in maple syrup urine disease including: (i) neurotransmitter deficiencies and growth restriction associated with branchedchain amino acid accumulation and (ii) energy deprivation through Krebs cycle disruption associated with branched-chain ketoacid accumulation. Both classic and intermediate models appear to be useful to study the mechanism of brain injury and potential treatment strategies for maple syrup urine disease. Norleucine should be further tested as a potential treatment to prevent encephalopathy in children with maple syrup urine disease during catabolic stress

    State-of-the-art in lean design engineering:a literature review on white collar lean

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    Lean is usually associated with the ‘operations’ of a manufacturing enterprise; however, there is a growing awareness that these principles may be transferred readily to other functions and sectors. The application to knowledge-based activities such as engineering design is of particular relevance to UK plc. Hence, the purpose of this study has been to establish the state-of-the-art, in terms of the adoption of Lean in new product development, by carrying out a systematic review of the literature. The authors' findings confirm the view that Lean can be applied beneficially away from the factory; that an understanding and definition of value is key to success; that a set-based (or Toyota methodology) approach to design is favoured together with the strong leadership of a chief engineer; and that the successful implementation requires organization-wide changes to systems, practices, and behaviour. On this basis it is felt that this review paper provides a useful platform for further research in this topic
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