968 research outputs found

    Dimensional enhancement of kinetic energies

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    Simple thermodynamics considers kinetic energy to be an extensive variable which is proportional to the number, N, of particles. We present a quantum state of N non-interacting particles for which the kinetic energy increases quadratically with N. This enhancement effect is tied to the quantum centrifugal potential whose strength is quadratic in the number of dimensions of configuration space.Comment: 9 pages, accepted by Phys. Rev.

    On the Squeezed Number States and their Phase Space Representations

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    We compute the photon number distribution, the Q distribution function and the wave functions in the momentum and position representation for a single mode squeezed number state using generating functions which allow to obtain any matrix element in the squeezed number state representation from the matrix elements in the squeezed coherent state representation. For highly squeezed number states we discuss the previously unnoted oscillations which appear in the Q function. We also note that these oscillations can be related to the photon-number distribution oscillations and to the momentum representation of the wave function.Comment: 16 pages, 9 figure

    Sagnac Effect of Goedel's Universe

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    We present exact expressions for the Sagnac effect of Goedel's Universe. For this purpose we first derive a formula for the Sagnac time delay along a circular path in the presence of an arbitrary stationary metric in cylindrical coordinates. We then apply this result to Goedel's metric for two different experimental situations: First, the light source and the detector are at rest relative to the matter generating the gravitational field. In this case we find an expression that is formally equivalent to the familiar nonrelativistic Sagnac time delay. Second, the light source and the detector are rotating relative to the matter. Here we show that for a special rotation rate of the detector the Sagnac time delay vanishes. Finally we propose a formulation of the Sagnac time delay in terms of invariant physical quantities. We show that this result is very close to the analogous formula of the Sagnac time delay of a rotating coordinate system in Minkowski spacetime.Comment: 26 pages, including 4 figures, corrected typos, changed reference

    Dropping cold quantum gases on Earth over long times and large distances

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    We describe the non-relativistic time evolution of an ultra-cold degenerate quantum gas (bosons/fermions) falling in Earth's gravity during long times (10 sec) and over large distances (100 m). This models a drop tower experiment that is currently performed by the QUANTUS collaboration at ZARM (Bremen, Germany). Starting from the classical mechanics of the drop capsule and a single particle trapped within, we develop the quantum field theoretical description for this experimental situation in an inertial frame, the corotating frame of the Earth, as well as the comoving frame of the drop capsule. Suitable transformations eliminate non-inertial forces, provided all external potentials (trap, gravity) can be approximated with a second order Taylor expansion around the instantaneous trap center. This is an excellent assumption and the harmonic potential theorem applies. As an application, we study the quantum dynamics of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in the Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field approximation. Due to the instantaneous transformation to the rest-frame of the superfluid wave packet, the long-distance drop (100m) can be studied easily on a numerical grid.Comment: 18 pages latex, 5 eps figures, submitte
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