84 research outputs found

    Lymphoma caused by intestinal microbiota.

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    The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma

    Homologous Recombination and Its Role in Carcinogenesis

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    Cancer develops when cells no longer follow their normal pattern of controlled growth. In the absence or disregard of such regulation, resulting from changes in their genetic makeup, these errant cells acquire a growth advantage, expanding into precancerous clones. Over the last decade, many studies have revealed the relevance of genomic mutation in this process, be it by misreplication, environmental damage, or a deficiency in repairing endogenous and exogenous damage. Here, we discuss homologous recombination as another mechanism that can result in a loss of heterozygosity or genetic rearrangements. Some of these genetic alterations may play a primary role in carcinogenesis, but they are more likely to be involved in secondary and subsequent steps of carcinogenesis by which recessive oncogenic mutations are revealed. Patients, whose cells display an increased frequency of recombination, also have an elevated frequency of cancer, further supporting the link between recombination and carcinogenesis

    Intestinal Microbiota and Lymphoma

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    The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma

    Ionizing radiation and restriction enzymes induce microhomology-mediated illegitimate recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    DNA double-strand breaks can be repaired by illegitimate recombination without extended sequence homology. A distinct mechanism namely microhomology-mediated recombination occurs between a few basepairs of homology that is associated with deletions. Ionizing radiation and restriction enzymes have been shown to increase the frequency of nonhomologous integration in yeast. However, the mechanism of such enhanced recombination events is not known. Here, we report that both ionizing radiation and restriction enzymes increase the frequency of microhomology-mediated integration. Irradiated yeast cells displayed 77% microhomology-mediated integration, compared to 27% in unirradiated cells. Radiation-induced integration exhibited lack of deletions at genomic insertion sites, implying that such events are likely to occur at undamaged sites. Restriction enzymes also enhanced integration events at random non-restriction sites via microhomology-mediated recombination. Furthermore, generation of a site-specific I-SceI-mediated double-strand break induces microhomology-mediated integration randomly throughout the genome. Taken together, these results suggest that double-strand breaks induce a genome-wide microhomology-mediated illegitimate recombination pathway that facilitates integration probably in trans at non-targeted sites and might be involved in generation of large deletions and other genomic rearrangements

    Involvement of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Sulfotransferases in the Excretion and Tissue Distribution of Resveratrol in Mice.

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    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with various pharmacological activities. It is unknown whether the expression of metabolizing enzymes correlates with resveratrol levels in organs and tissues. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism and tissue distribution of resveratrol in mice and assessed its association with the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt) and sulfotransferase (Sult) genes. Plasma, urine, feces, and various organs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography at up to 8 h after intragastric resveratrol administration. The metabolism of resveratrol was pronounced, leading to the formation of resveratrol glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of resveratrol and its metabolites were high in the gastrointestinal organs, urine, and feces, but low in the liver and kidneys. In lung, heart, thymus, and brain tissues, parent resveratrol levels exceeded the sulfate and glucuronide concentrations. The formation of resveratrol conjugates correlated with the expression of certain Ugt and Sult genes. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed high mRNA expression of Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6a in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, leading to high concentrations of resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide in these organs. Strong correlations of resveratrol-3-O-sulfate and resveratrol-3-O-4'-O-disulfate formation with Sult1a1 mRNA expression were also observed, particularly in the liver and colon. In summary, our data revealed organ-specific expression of Sults and Ugts in mice that strongly affects resveratrol concentrations; this may also be predictive in humans following oral uptake of dietary resveratrol

    Analysis of striatal transcriptome in mice overexpressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein supports synaptic dysfunction and suggests mechanisms of neuroprotection for striatal neurons

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    Abstract Background Alpha synuclein (SNCA) has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies) that include Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the primary neurodegeneration in PD involves nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, more extensive yet regionally selective neurodegeneration is observed in other synucleinopathies. Furthermore, SNCA is ubiquitously expressed in neurons and numerous neuronal systems are dysfunctional in PD. Therefore it is of interest to understand how overexpression of SNCA affects neuronal function in regions not directly targeted for neurodegeneration in PD. Results The present study investigated the consequences of SNCA overexpression on cellular processes and functions in the striatum of mice overexpressing wild-type, human SNCA under the Thy1 promoter (Thy1-aSyn mice) by transcriptome analysis. The analysis revealed alterations in multiple biological processes in the striatum of Thy1-aSyn mice, including synaptic plasticity, signaling, transcription, apoptosis, and neurogenesis. Conclusion The results support a key role for SNCA in synaptic function and revealed an apoptotic signature in Thy1-aSyn mice, which together with specific alterations of neuroprotective genes suggest the activation of adaptive compensatory mechanisms that may protect striatal neurons in conditions of neuronal overexpression of SNCA

    Ty1 integrase overexpression leads to integration of non-Ty1 DNA fragments into the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    The integrase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty1 integrates Ty1 cDNA into genomic DNA likely via a transesterification reaction. Little is known about the mechanisms ensuring that integrase does not integrate non-Ty DNA fragments. In an effort to elucidate the conditions under which Ty1 integrase accepts non-Ty DNA as substrate, PCR fragments encompassing a selectable marker gene were transformed into yeast strains overexpressing Ty1 integrase. These fragments do not exhibit similarity to Ty1 cDNA except for the presence of the conserved terminal dinucleotide 5′-TG-CA-3′. The frequency of fragment insertion events increased upon integrase overexpression. Characterization of insertion events by genomic sequencing revealed that most insertion events exhibited clear hallmarks of integrase-mediated reactions, such as 5 bp target site duplication and target site preferences. Alteration of the terminal dinucleotide abolished the suitability of the PCR fragments to serve as substrates. We hypothesize that substrate specificity under normal conditions is mainly due to compartmentalization of integrase and Ty cDNA, which meet in virus-like particles. In contrast, recombinant integrase, which is not confined to virus-like particles, is able to accept non-Ty DNA, provided that it terminates in the proper dinucleotide sequence

    Experimental Antioxidant Therapy in Ataxia Telangiectasia

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    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by immunodeficiency, early onset neurological degeneration, hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and a high incidence of lymphoid cancers. The disease results from bi-allelic mutations in the AT mutated ( ATM ) gene involved in cell cycle checkpoint control and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Evidence has been accumulating that oxidative stress is associated with AT and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. This led to a hypothesis that antioxidant therapy may mitigate the symptoms of AT, especially neurological degeneration and tumorigenesis. Consequently, several studies examined the effect of antioxidants in Atm deficient mice used as an animal model of AT. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), EUK-189, tempol and 5-carboxy-1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl (CTMIO) have been tested for their chemopreventive properties and had some beneficial effects. In addition to antioxidants, cancer therapeutic agent dexamethasone was examined for cancer prevention in Atm deficient mice. Of the tested antioxidants, only NAC has wide clinical applications due to safety and efficacy and is available as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. In this article, we review chemoprevention studies in Atm deficient mice and, in more detail, our findings on the effect of NAC. The short-tem study showed that NAC suppressed genome rearrangements linked to cancer. The long-term study demonstrated that NAC reduced both the incidence and multiplicity of lymphoma
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