487 research outputs found

### Doppler effects on velocity spectra observed by MST radars

Recently, wind data from mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars have been used to study the spectra of gravity waves in the atmosphere (Scheffler and Liu, 1985; VanZandt et al., 1985). Since MST radar measures the line-of-sight Doppler velocities, it senses the components of the wave-associated velocities along its beam directions. These components are related through the polarization relations which depend on the frequency and wave number of the wave. Therfore, the radar-observed velocity spectrum will be different from the original gravity-wave spectrum. Their relationship depends on the frequency and wave number of the wave as well as the propagation geometry. This relation can be used to interpret the observed data. It can also be used to test the assumption of gravity-wave spectrum (Scheffler and Liu, 1985). In deriving this relation, the background atmosphere has been assumed to be motionless. Obviously, the Doppler shift due to the background wind will change the shape of the gravity-wave power spectrum as well as its relation with the radar-observed spectrum. Here, researcher's investigate these changes

### Gravity-wave spectra in the atmosphere observed by MST radar, part 4.2B

A universal spectrum of atmospheric buoyancy waves is proposed based on data from radiosonde, Doppler navigation, not-wire anemometer and Jimsphere balloon. The possible existence of such a universal spectrum clearly will have significant impact on several areas in the study of the middle atmosphere dynamics such as the parameterization of sub-grid scale gravity waves in global circulation models; the transport of trace constituents and heat in the middle atmosphere, etc. Therefore, it is important to examine more global wind data with temporal and spatial resolutions suitable for the investigation of the wave spectra. Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar observations offer an excellent opportunity for such studies. It is important to realize that radar measures the line-of-sight velocity which, in general, contains the combination of the vertical and horizontal components of the wave-associated particle velocity. Starting from a general oblique radar observation configuration, applying the dispersion relation for the gravity waves, the spectrum for the observed fluctuations in the line-of-sight gravity-wave spectrum is investigated through a filter function. The consequence of the filter function on data analysis is discussed

### Temperature Chaos, Rejuvenation and Memory in Migdal-Kadanoff Spin Glasses

We use simulations within the Migdal-Kadanoff real space renormalization
approach to probe the scales relevant for rejuvenation and memory in spin
glasses. One of the central questions concerns the role of temperature chaos.
First we investigate scaling laws of equilibrium temperature chaos, finding
super-exponential decay of correlations but no chaos for the total free energy.
Then we perform out of equilibrium simulations that follow experimental
protocols. We find that: (1) rejuvenation arises at a length scale smaller than
the ``overlap length'' l(T,T'); (2) memory survives even if equilibration goes
out to length scales much larger than l(T,T').Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, added references, slightly changed content,
modified Fig.

### Non-adiabatic Effects in the Dissociation of Oxygen Molecules at the Al(111) Surface

The measured low initial sticking probability of oxygen molecules at the
Al(111) surface that had puzzled the field for many years was recently
explained in a non-adiabatic picture invoking spin-selection rules [J. Behler
et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 036104 (2005)]. These selection rules tend to
conserve the initial spin-triplet character of the free O2 molecule during the
molecule's approach to the surface. A new locally-constrained
density-functional theory approach gave access to the corresponding
potential-energy surface (PES) seen by such an impinging spin-triplet molecule
and indicated barriers to dissociation which reduce the sticking probability.
Here, we further substantiate this non-adiabatic picture by providing a
detailed account of the employed approach. Building on the previous work, we
focus in particular on inaccuracies in present-day exchange-correlation
functionals. Our analysis shows that small quantitative differences in the
spin-triplet constrained PES obtained with different gradient-corrected
functionals have a noticeable effect on the lowest kinetic energy part of the
resulting sticking curve.Comment: 17 pages including 11 figures; related publications can be found at
http://www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/th/th.htm

### Exchange and Correlation Kernels at the Resonance Frequency -- Implications for Excitation Energies in Density-Functional Theory

Specific matrix elements of exchange and correlation kernels in
time-dependent density-functional theory are computed. The knowledge of these
matrix elements not only constraints approximate time-dependent functionals,
but also allows to link different practical approaches to excited states,
either based on density-functional theory, or on many-body perturbation theory,
despite the approximations that have been performed to derive them.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (February 4, 1999). Other related
publications can be found at http://www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/th/paper.htm

### Exploiting the neutronization burst of a galactic supernova

One of the robust features found in simulations of core-collapse supernovae
(SNe) is the prompt neutronization burst, i.e. the first $\sim 25$ milliseconds
after bounce when the SN emits with very high luminosity mainly $\nu_e$
neutrinos. We examine the dependence of this burst on variations in the input
of current SN models and find that recent improvements of the electron capture
rates as well as uncertainties in the nuclear equation of state or a variation
of the progenitor mass have only little effect on the signature of the
neutronization peak in a megaton water Cherenkov detector for different
neutrino mixing schemes. We show that exploiting the time-structure of the
neutronization peak allows one to identify the case of a normal mass hierarchy
and large 13-mixing angle $\theta_{13}$, where the peak is absent. The
robustness of the predicted total event number in the neutronization burst
makes a measurement of the distance to the SN feasible with a precision of
about 5%, even in the likely case that the SN is optically obscured.Comment: 14 pages, 17 eps figures, revtex4 style, minor comments adde

### Highly site-specific H2 adsorption on vicinal Si(001) surfaces

Experimental and theoretical results for the dissociative adsorption of H_2
on vicinal Si(001) surfaces are presented. Using optical second-harmonic
generation, sticking probabilities at the step sites are found to exceed those
on the terraces by up to six orders of magnitude. Density functional theory
calculations indicate the presence of direct adsorption pathways for
monohydride formation but with a dramatically lowered barrier for step
adsorption due to an efficient rehybridization of dangling orbitals.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (1998). Other
related publications can be found at
http://www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/th/paper.htm

### Clean and As-covered zinc-blende GaN (001) surfaces: Novel surface structures and surfactant behavior

We have investigated clean and As-covered zinc-blende GaN (001) surfaces,
employing first-principles total-energy calculations. For clean GaN surfaces
our results reveal a novel surface structure very different from the
well-established dimer structures commonly observed on polar III-V (001)
surfaces: The energetically most stable surface is achieved by a Peierls
distortion of the truncated (1x1) surface rather than through addition or
removal of atoms. This surface exhibits a (1x4) reconstruction consisting of
linear Ga tetramers. Furthermore, we find that a submonolayer of arsenic
significantly lowers the surface energy indicating that As may be a good
surfactant. Analyzing surface energies and band structures we identify the
mechanisms which govern these unusual structures and discuss how they might
affect growth properties.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, to be published in Appears in Phys. Rev. Lett.
(in print). Other related publications can be found at
http://www.rz-berlin.mpg.de/th/paper.htm

### Dynamics of ghost domains in spin-glasses

We revisit the problem of how spin-glasses ``heal'' after being exposed to
tortuous perturbations by the temperature/bond chaos effects in
temperature/bond cycling protocols. Revised scaling arguments suggest the
amplitude of the order parameter within ghost domains recovers very slowly as
compared with the rate it is reduced by the strong perturbations. The parallel
evolution of the order parameter and the size of the ghost domains can be
examined in simulations and experiments by measurements of a memory
auto-correlation function which exhibits a ``memory peak'' at the time scale of
the age imprinted in the ghost domains. These expectations are confirmed by
Monte Calro simulations of an Edwards-Anderson Ising spin-glass model.Comment: 17 pages, 3 figure

### Surface relaxation and ferromagnetism of Rh(001)

The significant discrepancy between first-principles calculations and
experimental analyses for the relaxation of the (001) surface of rhodium has
been a puzzle for some years. In this paper we present density functional
theory calculations using the local-density approximation and the generalized
gradient approximation of the exchange-correlation functional. We investigate
the thermal expansion of the surface and the possibility of surface magnetism.
The results throw light on several, hitherto overlooked, aspects of metal
surfaces. We find, that, when the free energy is considered, density-functional
theory provides results in good agreement with experiments.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (April 28, 1996

- âŠ