1,186 research outputs found

    Inguino-abdominal combined approach for laterally extended pelvic resection: a step by step procedure

    Get PDF
    This video article demonstrates an inguino-abdominal combined approach for laterally extended pelvic resection, a major surgical procedure for locally advanced primary or recurrent gynecological cancer infiltrating the pelvic sidewall, for which palliative therapy is the only alternative.1 After local institutional review board approval (protocol No CICOG 02/03/62), we made a step by step surgical video of an inguino-abdominal combined approach for laterally extended pelvic resection , defined as an en bloc resection of a pelvic tumor with pelvic sidewall structures, including the iliopsoas and/or obturator internus muscles.2 3 The patient, a 48-year-old woman, diagnosed with single pelvic platinum resistant recurrence after five lines of chemotherapy for serous ovarian cancer G3, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIC, BRCA wild type. The preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan detected uptake on the right side at the level of the external iliac region and obturator fossa: the tumor surrounded the right external iliac vessels by more than 50% of their circumferences, with possible involvement of the vascular wall and venous vascular compression (Tinelli's score=4).4 The tumor extended towards the obturator fossa, with possible involvement of the inguinal canal. Due to an uncertain pathological response, the size of the recurrence, and its close contiguity with the ureter and bowel, we decided to avoid radiation therapy as it could result in a ureteral or intestinal fistula. We performed a laterally extended pelvic resection, as shown step by step in the video.The procedure was conducted until complete removal of recurrence (R0). Estimated blood loss was 1000 mL and total operative time was 240 min. The patient was discharged after 15 days; we reported a urinary infection, a likely postoperative complication. The pathology report described a lymphnodal relapse of ovarian cancer (diameter=6 cm) with infiltration of surrounding tissue and in the sano margins. Six months after surgery, the patient is alive without evidence of relapse.The borders of pelvic surgical anatomy are continually extending, requiring surgeons to use a personalized approach and to continually update their anatomic knowledge. In this context, laterally extended pelvic resection could be a feasible surgical procedure, representing a salvage treatment in recurrent or persistent primary gynecological malignancies infiltrating the pelvic sidewall, when other approaches have failed. However, additional clinical trials are needed to confirm these results.

    Endometrial carcinoma in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus: A case report

    Get PDF
    We discuss the diagnosis and the management of endometrial carcinoma in a single horn of bicornuate uterus in a 64-year-old woman as a case report. The case underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and bilateral iliac lymphadenectomy.The gross examination of the uterus revealed a bicornuate uterus with a greater horn of 12 × 9 × 8 cm and a smaller horn of 10 × 3 cm. The cavity of the greater horn showed a neoplastic growth of 10 cm with infiltration of about 1,8 cm of the myometrium from whole thickness of 1.9 cm. while the other horn was free of tumor tissue.The microscopic examination of the uterus revealed G2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium of the greater horn with infiltration of more than 50% of the myometrium.In the presence of bicornuate uterus, a bilateral endometrial biopsy should be performed in order to reduce the risk of delayed or missed diagnosis.The management of a case of bicornuate unicollis uterus with endometrial carcinoma in only one horn is the same as patients with endometrial cancer in single uterus and depends mainly on stage and histological grade of the tumor.The possibility of existence of a separate uterine cavity should always be considered when endometrial cancer is clinically suspected but pathology fails to confirm the diagnosis. This points out the importance of a careful physical examination and radiographic evaluation in such cases. Keywords: Bicornuate uterus, Endometrial cance

    Terapia ormonale sostitutiva e osteoporosi postmenopausale

    Get PDF
    SommarioL'osteoporosi postmenopausale è un processo per il quale il tessuto osseo sviluppa una fragilità risultando più suscettibile alle fratture anche per traumi che solitamente non comporterebbero tali eventi. La carenza estrogenica è un punto fondamentale nella patogenesi dell'osteoporosi. La TOS rappresenta un trattamento di scelta nella prevenzione della osteoporosi e delle fratture correlate, soprattutto nei primi anni di postmenopausa

    Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Get PDF
    Infection with herpes simplex is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Because the infection is common in women of reproductive age it can be contracted and transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn. Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in the uterus, it occurs frequently during the transmission delivery. The greatest risk of transmission to the fetus and the newborn occurs in case of an initial maternal infection contracted in the second half of pregnancy. The risk of transmission of maternal-fetal-neonatal herpes simplex can be decreased by performing a treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations on management of herpes simplex infections in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission from mother to fetus

    Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression and resistance to platinum versus platinum/paclitaxel containing chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), the key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is involved in critical steps of tumor onset and progression, and is a strong predictor of chemotherapy resistance and poor outcome in advanced ovarian cancer. To our knowledge, no data has been reported until now about the association between COX-2 status and response to different chemotherapy regimens. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to investigate the association of COX-2 with outcome and response to platinum versus platinum/paclitaxel in 68 primary ovarian cancer. COX-2 immunoreaction was performed on paraffin-embedded sections by using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against COX-2. RESULTS: In the overall series, COX-2 positivity was found in a statistically significant higher percentage of not responding cases than in patients responding to chemotherapy (n = 15/21; 71.4% versus n = 17/47; 36.1%; p value = 0.0072). A higher percentage of COX-2 positivity was found in patients unresponsive (n = 11/13; 84.6%) versus patients responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy (n = 9/26; 34.6%). In cases administered platinum/paclitaxel, COX-2 positivity was found in 4 out of 8 (50%) of un responsive versus 8 out of 21 (38.1%) of responsive cases. Logistic regression analysis of parameters likely to affect response to treatment resulted in a p value = 0.17 for the interaction COX-2/type of treatment. CONCLUSION: Although these findings need to be confirmed in a larger series, our study suggests a possible indication that there is a difference in the influence of COX-2 on response depending on treatment regimen

    Interleukin-21 induces the differentiation of human umbilical cord blood CD34-lineage- cells into pseudomature lytic NK cells

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is enriched with transplantable CD34<sup>+ </sup>cells. In addition to CD34-expressing haematopoietic stem cells (HSC), human UCB contains a rare population of CD34<sup>-</sup>lineage<sup>- </sup>cells endowed with the ability to differentiate along the T/NK pathway in response to interleukin (IL)-15 and a stromal cell support. IL-21 is a crucial regulator of NK cell function, whose influence on IL-15-induced differentiation of CD34<sup>-</sup>lineage<sup>- </sup>cells has not been investigated previously. The present study was designed and conducted to address whether IL-21 might replace the stromal cell requirements and foster the IL-15-induced NK differentiation of human UCB CD34<sup>-</sup>lineage<sup>- </sup>cells.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>CD34<sup>-</sup>lineage<sup>- </sup>cells were maintained in liquid culture with Flt3-L and SCF, with the addition of IL-15 and IL-21, either alone or in combination. Cultures were established in the absence of feeder cells or serum supplementation. Cytokine-treated cells were used to evaluate cell surface phenotype, expression of molecular determinants of lymphoid/NK cell differentiation, secretion of IFN-γ, GM-CSF, TNF-α and CCL3/MIP-1α, and cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive tumour cell targets. CD34<sup>-</sup>lineage<sup>- </sup>cells proliferated vigorously in response to IL-15 and IL-21 but not to IL-21 alone, and up-regulated phosphorylated Stat1 and Stat3 proteins. CD34<sup>-</sup>lineage<sup>- </sup>cells expanded by IL-21 in combination with IL-15 acquired lymphoid morphology and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)<sup>-</sup>CD56<sup>+</sup>CD16<sup>-/+ </sup>phenotype, consistent with pseudo-mature NK cells. IL-21/IL-15-differentiated cells expressed high levels of mRNA for Bcl-2, GATA-3 and Id2, a master switch required for NK-cell development, and harboured un-rearranged TCRγ genes. From a functional standpoint, IL-21/IL-15-treated cells secreted copious amounts of IFN-γ, GM-CSF and CCL3/MIP-1α, and expressed cell surface CD107a upon contact with NK-sensitive tumour targets, a measure of exocytosis of NK secretory granules.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study underpins a novel role for IL-21 in the differentiation of pseudo-mature lytic NK cells in a synergistic context with IL-15, and identifies a potential strategy to expand functional NK cells for immunotherapy.</p

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the management of ovarian cancer

    Get PDF
    Among the pharmaceutical options available for treatment of ovarian cancer, much attention has been progressively focused on pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), whose unique formulation, which entraps conventional doxorubicin in a bilayer lipidic sphere surrounded by a polyethylene glycol layer, prolongs the persistence of the drug in the circulation and potentiates intratumor drug accumulation. These properties enable this drug to sustain its very favorable toxicity profile and to be used safely in combination with other drugs. PLD has been already approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer patients failing first-line platinum-based treatment. Moreover, phase III trials have been already completed, and results are eagerly awaited, which hopefully will expand the range of PLD clinical application in this neoplasia both in front-line treatment, and in the salvage setting in combination with other drugs. Moreover, attempts are continuing to enable this drug to be combined with novel cytotoxic drugs and target-based agents. This review aims at summarizing the available evidence and the new perspectives for the clinical role of PLD in the management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    Tolerability of maintenance olaparib in newly diagnosed patients with advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation in the randomized phase III SOLO1 trial

    Get PDF
    Olaparib; Ovarian cancer; TolerabilityOlaparib; Cáncer de ovarios; TolerabilidadOlaparib; Càncer d'ovaris; TolerabilitatObjectives In the phase III SOLO1 trial (NCT01844986), maintenance olaparib provided a substantial progression-free survival benefit in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation who were in response after platinum-based chemotherapy. We analyzed the timing, duration and grade of the most common hematologic and non-hematologic adverse events in SOLO1. Methods Eligible patients were randomized to olaparib tablets 300 mg twice daily (N = 260) or placebo (N = 131), with a 2-year treatment cap in most patients. Safety outcomes were analyzed in detail in randomized patients who received at least one dose of study drug (olaparib, n = 260; placebo, n = 130). Results Median time to first onset of the most common hematologic (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) and non-hematologic (nausea, fatigue/asthenia, vomiting) adverse events was <3 months in olaparib-treated patients. The first event of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea and vomiting lasted a median of <2 months and the first event of fatigue/asthenia lasted a median of 3.48 months in the olaparib group. These adverse events were manageable with supportive treatment and/or olaparib dose modification in most patients, with few patients requiring discontinuation of olaparib. Of 162 patients still receiving olaparib at month 24, 64.2% were receiving the recommended starting dose of olaparib 300 mg twice daily. Conclusions Maintenance olaparib had a predictable and manageable adverse event profile in the newly diagnosed setting with no new safety signals identified. Adverse events usually occurred early, were largely manageable and led to discontinuation in a minority of patients.This work was supported by AstraZeneca and is part of an alliance between AstraZeneca and MSD
    corecore