96 research outputs found

    Automata network models of galaxy evolution

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    Two ideas appear frequently in theories of star formation and galaxy evolution: (1) star formation is nonlocally excitatory, stimulating star formation in neighboring regions by propagation of a dense fragmenting shell or the compression of preexisting clouds; and (2) star formation is nonlocally inhibitory, making H2 regions and explosions which can create low-density and/or high temperature regions and increase the macroscopic velocity dispersion of the cloudy gas. Since it is not possible, given the present state of hydrodynamic modeling, to estimate whether one of these effects greatly dominates the other, it is of interest to investigate the predicted spatial pattern of star formation and its temporal behavior in simple models which incorporate both effects in a controlled manner. The present work presents preliminary results of such a study which is based on lattice galaxy models with various types of nonlocal inhibitory and excitatory couplings of the local SFR to the gas density, temperature, and velocity field meant to model a number of theoretical suggestions

    Turbulence-Induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles II: The Bidisperse Case

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    We extend our earlier work on turbulence-induced relative velocity between equal-size particles (Pan and Padoan, Paper I) to particles of arbitrarily different sizes. The Pan and Padoan (PP10) model shows that the relative velocity between different particles has two contributions, named the generalized shear and acceleration terms, respectively. The generalized shear term represents the particles' memory of the spatial flow velocity difference across the particle distance in the past, while the acceleration term is associated with the temporal flow velocity difference on individual particle trajectories. Using the simulation of Paper I, we compute the root-mean-square relative velocity, ^1/2, as a function of the friction times, tau_p1 and tau_p2, of the two particles, and show that the PP10 prediction is in satisfactory agreement with the data, confirming its physical picture. For a given tau_p1 below the Lagrangian correlation time of the flow, T_L, ^1/2 as a function of tau_p2 shows a dip at tau_p2~tau_p1, indicating tighter velocity correlation between similar particles. Defining a ratio f=tau_pl/tau_ph, with tau_pl and tau_ph the friction times of the smaller and larger particles, we find that ^1/2 increases with decreasing f due to the generalized acceleration contribution, which dominates at f<1/4. At a fixed f, our model predicts that ^1/2 scales as tau_ph^1/2 for tau_p,h in the inertial range of the flow, stays roughly constant for T_L <tau_ph < T_L/f, and finally decreases as tau_ph^-1/2 for tau_ph>>T_L/f. The acceleration term is independent of the particle distance, r, and thus reduces the r-dependence of ^1/2 in the bidisperse case.Comment: 23 pages, 12 figures, Accepted to Ap

    Modeling the Pollution of Pristine Gas in the Early Universe

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    We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than later generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z_c, which lies between ~10^-6 and 10^-3 solar value. Z_c is much smaller than the typical average metallicity, , and thus the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z_c, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metallicity. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z_c, in compressible turbulence. Our simulation data shows that the evolution of the fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized self-convolution model, which predicts dP/dt = -n/tau_con P (1-P^(1/n)), where n is a measure of the locality of the PDF convolution and the timescale tau_con is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Using a suite of simulations with Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we provide accurate fits to n and tau_con as a function of M, Z_c/, and the scale, L_p, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For P>0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding the pollutants, such that n=1. For smaller P, n is larger as mixing becomes more global. We show how the results can be used to construct one-zone models for the evolution of Pop III stars in a single high-redshift galaxy, as well as subgrid models for tracking the evolution of the first stars in large cosmological simulations.Comment: 37 pages, accepted by Ap

    Turbulence-Induced Relative Velocity Of Dust Particles. III. The Probability Distribution

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    Motivated by its important role in the collisional growth of dust particles in protoplanetary disks, we investigate the probability distribution function (PDF) of the relative velocity of inertial particles suspended in turbulent flows. Using the simulation from our previous work, we compute the relative velocity PDF as a function of the friction timescales, tau(p1) and tau(p2), of two particles of arbitrary sizes. The friction time of the particles included in the simulation ranges from 0.1 tau(eta) to 54T(L), where tau(eta) and T-L are the Kolmogorov time and the Lagrangian correlation time of the flow, respectively. The relative velocity PDF is generically non-Gaussian, exhibiting fat tails. For a fixed value of tau(p1), the PDF shape is the fattest for equal-size particles (tau(p2) = tau(p1)), and becomes thinner at both tau(p2) tau(p1). Defining f as the friction time ratio of the smaller particle to the larger one, we find that, at a given f in (1/2) less than or similar to f less than or similar to 1, the PDF fatness first increases with the friction time tau(p,h) of the larger particle, peaks at tau(p,h) similar or equal to tau(eta), and then decreases as tp, h increases further. For 0 > T-L). These features are successfully explained by the Pan & Padoan model. Using our simulation data and some simplifying assumptions, we estimated the fractions of collisions resulting in sticking, bouncing, and fragmentation as a function of the dust size in protoplanetary disks, and argued that accounting for non-Gaussianity of the collision velocity may help further alleviate the bouncing barrier problem.Astronom

    Testing population synthesis models with globular cluster colors

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    We have measured an extensive set of UBVRIJHK colors for M31 globular clusters [Barmby et al. 2000]. We compare the predicted simple stellar population colors of three population synthesis models to the intrinsic colors of Galactic and M31 globular clusters. The best-fitting models fit the cluster colors very well -- the weighted mean color offsets are all < 0.05 mag. The most significant offsets between model and data are in the U and B passbands; these are not unexpected and are likely due to problems with the spectral libraries used by the models. The metal-rich clusters ([Fe/H] > -0.8) are best fit by young (8 Gyr) models, while the metal-poor clusters are best fit by older (12--16 Gyr) models. If this range of globular cluster ages is correct, it implies that conditions for cluster formation must have existed for a substantial fraction of the galaxies' lifetimes.Comment: To appear in ApJ Letters; 8 pages including 3 figures and 1 tabl
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