25 research outputs found

    Economic Development and Inequality: a complex system analysis

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    By borrowing methods from complex system analysis, in this paper we analyze the features of the complex relationship that links the development and the industrialization of a country to economic inequality. In order to do this, we identify industrialization as a combination of a monetary index, the GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of the complexity of an economy, the Fitness. At first we explore these relations on a global scale over the time period 1990--2008 focusing on two different dimensions of inequality: the capital share of income and a Theil measure of wage inequality. In both cases, the movement of inequality follows a pattern similar to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties. We then narrow down the object of study ad we concentrate on wage inequality within the United States. By employing data on wages and employment on the approximately 3100 US counties for the time interval 1990--2014, we generalize the Fitness-Complexity algorithm for counties and NAICS sectors, and we investigate wage inequality between industrial sectors within counties. At this scale, in the early nineties we recover a behavior similar to the global one. While, in more recent years, we uncover a trend reversal: wage inequality monotonically increases as industrialization levels grow. Hence at a county level, at net of the social and institutional factors that differ among countries, we not only observe an upturn in inequality but also a change in the structure of the relation between wage inequality and development

    Behind the Italian Regional Divide: An Economic Fitness and Complexity Perspective

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    This paper applies the Economic Fitness and Complexity approach to analyze the underlying factors behind the wide and persistent economic disparities across the Italian regional units. Measures of regional fitness are obtained from their revealed comparative advantage and their patent performance. Southern regions tend to be characterised by a lower level of complexity than the regions in the Centre-North of the country. We interpret these results as indicating a lower level of capability endowment in the South. The system-wide approach of the paper is able to identify some critical sectors which display a rich pattern of connections with other sectors and which could play a pivotal role to create additional capabilities and foster a more balanced regional development

    Mapping job complexity and skills into wages

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    We use algorithmic and network-based tools to build and analyze the bipartite network connecting jobs with the skills they require. We quantify and represent the relatedness between jobs and skills by using statistically validated networks. Using the fitness and complexity algorithm, we compute a skill-based complexity of jobs. This quantity is positively correlated with the average salary, abstraction, and non-routinarity level of jobs. Furthermore, coherent jobs - defined as the ones requiring closely related skills - have, on average, lower wages. We find that salaries may not always reflect the intrinsic value of a job, but rather other wage-setting dynamics that may not be directly related to its skill composition. Our results provide valuable information for policymakers, employers, and individuals to better understand the dynamics of the labor market and make informed decisions about their careers

    Economic complexity and the sustainability transition: A review of data, methods, and literature

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    Economic Complexity (EC) methods have gained increasing popularity across fields and disciplines. In particular, the EC toolbox has proved particularly promising in the study of complex and interrelated phenomena, such as the transition towards a greener economy. Using the EC approach, scholars have been investigating the relationship between EC and sustainability, proposing to identify the distinguishing characteristics of green products and to assess the readiness of productive and technological structures for the sustainability transition. This article proposes to review and summarize the data, methods, and empirical literature that are relevant to the study of the sustainability transition from an EC perspective. We review three distinct but connected blocks of literature on EC and environmental sustainability. First, we survey the evidence linking measures of EC to indicators related to environmental sustainability. Second, we review articles that strive to assess the green competitiveness of productive systems. Third, we examine evidence on green technological development and its connection to non-green knowledge bases. Finally, we summarize the findings for each block and identify avenues for further research in this recent and growing body of empirical literature.Comment: 57 pages, 1 figur

    Behind the Italian Regional Divide: An Economic Fitness and Complexity Perspective

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    This paper applies the Economic Fitness and Complexity approach to analyse the underlying factors behind the wide and persistent economic disparities across the Italian regional units. Measures of regional fitness are obtained from their revealed comparative advantage and from their patent performance. It is shown that Southern regions tend to be characterised by a lower level of complexity than the regions in the Centre-North of the country. We interpret these results as indicating a lower level of capability endowment in the South. The system-wide approach of the paper is able to identify some critical sectors which display a rich pattern of connections with other sectors and which could play a pivotal role to create additional capabilities and foster a more balanced regional development

    The Role of Complex Analysis in Modeling Economic Growth

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    Development and growth are complex and tumultuous processes. Modern economic growth theories identify some key determinants of economic growth. However, the relative importance of the determinants remains unknown, and additional variables may help clarify the directions and dimensions of the interactions. The novel stream of literature on economic complexity goes beyond aggregate measures of productive inputs, and considers instead a more granular and structural view of the productive possibilities of countries, i.e. their capabilities. Different endowments of capabilities are crucial ingredients in explaining differences in economic performances. In this paper we employ economic fitness, a measure of productive capabilities obtained through complex network techniques. Focusing on the combined roles of fitness and some more traditional drivers of growth, we build a bridge between economic growth theories and the economic complexity literature. Our findings, in agreement with other recent empirical studies, show that fitness plays a crucial role in fostering economic growth and, when it is put into the analysis, can be either complementary to traditional drivers of growth or can completely overshadow them

    The trickle down from environmental innovation to productive complexity

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    We study the empirical relationship between green technologies and industrial production at very fine-grained levels by employing Economic Complexity techniques. Firstly, we use patent data on green technology domains as a proxy for competitive green innovation and data on exported products as a proxy for competitive industrial production. Secondly, with the aim of observing how green technological development trickles down into industrial production, we build a bipartite directed network linking single green technologies at time t1 to single products at time t2≥t1 on the basis of their time-lagged co-occurrences in the technological and industrial specialization profiles of countries. Thirdly, we filter the links in the network by employing a maximum entropy null-model. Our results emphasize a strong connection between green technologies and the export of products related to the processing of raw materials, notably crucial for the development of climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies. Furthermore, by looking at the evolution of the network over time, we observe a growing presence of more complex green technologies and high-tech products among the significant links, suggesting an increase in their importance in the network

    Green innovation and income inequality: A complex system analysis.

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    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between income inequality and environmental innovation. To this end, we use the Economic Fitness and Complexity algorithm to compute an index of green inventive capacity in a panel of 57 countries over the period 1970-2010. The empirical analysis reveals that, on average, inequality is detrimental to countries' capacity to develop complex green technologies. Using non-parametric methods we further articulate this general finding and uncover interesting non-linearities in the relationship between innovation and inequality. [Abstract copyright: © 2022 The Author(s).

    Green innovation and income inequality: A complex system analysis.

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    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between income inequality and environmental innovation. To this end, we use the Economic Fitness and Complexity algorithm to compute an index of green inventive capacity in a panel of 57 countries over the period 1970-2010. The empirical analysis reveals that, on average, inequality is detrimental to countries' capacity to develop complex green technologies. Using non-parametric methods we further articulate this general finding and uncover interesting non-linearities in the relationship between innovation and inequality. [Abstract copyright: © 2022 The Author(s).

    Green Technology Fitness

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    [EN] The present study provides an analysis of empirical regularities in the development of green technology. We use patent data to examine inventions that can be traced to the environment-related catalogue (ENV-T ECH ) covering technologies in environmental management, water-related adaptation and climate change mitigation. Further, we employ the Economic Fitness-Complexity (EFC) approach to assess their development and geographical distribution across countries between 1970 and 2010. This allows us to identify three typologies of countries: leaders, laggards and catch-up. While, as expected, there is a direct relationship between GDP per capita and invention capacity, we also document the remarkable growth of East Asia countries that started from the periphery and rapidly established themselves as key actors. This geographical pattern coincides with higher integration across domains so that, while the relative development of individual areas may have peaked, there is now demand for greater interoperability across green technologies.L.N. acknowledges financial support from the Italian Project of National Interest CRISISLAB (MIUR).Sbardella, A.; Perruchas, FDX.; Napolitano, L.; Barbieri, N.; Consoli, D. (2018). Green Technology Fitness. Entropy. 20(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/e20100776S201
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