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    京都大学0048新制・課程博士博士(医学)甲第22746号医博第4664号新制||医||1047(附属図書館)京都大学大学院医学研究科医学専攻(主査)教授 武藤 学, 教授 小川 誠司, 教授 川口 義弥学位規則第4条第1項該当Doctor of Medical ScienceKyoto UniversityDFA

    Analysis of A-Type and B-Type Highly Polymeric Proanthocyanidins and Their Biological Activities as Nutraceuticals

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    Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin/(−)-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements

    Expression of the Aeluropus littoralis AlSAP gene enhances rice yield under field drought at the reproductive stage

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    We evaluated the yields of Oryza sativa L. 'Nipponbare' rice lines expressing a gene encoding an A20/AN1 domain stress-associated protein, AlSAP, from the halophyte grass Aeluropus littoralis under the control of different promoters. Three independent field trials were conducted, with drought imposed at the reproductive stage. In all trials, the two transgenic lines, RN5 and RN6, consistently out-performed non-transgenic (NT) and wild-type (WT) controls, providing 50–90% increases in grain yield (GY). Enhancement of tillering and panicle fertility contributed to this improved GY under drought. In contrast with physiological records collected during previous greenhouse dry-down experiments, where drought was imposed at the early tillering stage, we did not observe significant differences in photosynthetic parameters, leaf water potential, or accumulation of antioxidants in flag leaves of AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at flowering. However, AlSAP expression alleviated leaf rolling and leaf drying induced by drought, resulting in increased accumulation of green biomass. Therefore, the observed enhanced performance of the AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at the reproductive stage can be tentatively ascribed to a primed status of the transgenic plants, resulting from a higher accumulation of biomass during vegetative growth, allowing reserve remobilization and maintenance of productive tillering and grain filling. Under irrigated conditions, the overall performance of AlSAP-lines was comparable with, or even significantly better than, the NT and WT controls. Thus, AlSAP expression inflicted no penalty on rice yields under optimal growth conditions. Our results support the use of AlSAP transgenics to reduce rice GY losses under drought conditions. (Résumé d'auteur

    Mass transfer control in multilayer EBC systems at high temperatures

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    Shear walls often function as elements that provide resistance to horizontal external forces exerted on wooden frames. Many shear walls with superior strength performance have been developed for this purpose. Amidst this backdrop, we have attempted to develop a shear wall that, in addition to strength performance, decreases the time and labor required for disposal. More specifically, the authors proposed a novel “metalless” shear wall: a shear wall in which industrial double-sided adhesive tape is used to attach plywood to the framework. Also, wood dowels are used as supplementary connectors with the aim of enhancing strength performance. Unlike conventional shear walls that use nails and metal fixtures, separation at the time of disposal is unnecessary, and therefore, disposal time and labor of the wall are anticipated to be significantly decreased. Thus, this study involved demonstrating and verifying a methodof theoretical analysis for the mechanical performance of these kinds of shear walls toward in-plane shear force. Specifically, this study derived a method to estimate the mechanical behavior (load-deformation angle relationship) of plywood-sheathed shear walls based on shear performance obtained from double shear tests of joint specimens with the combined use of adhesive tape and wood dowels. Also, the validity of the method was experimentally verified. The results showed that the method proposed in this study was able to estimate the mechanical behavior and mechanical properties of the newly proposed shear wall, and the validity of the method was confirmed