86 research outputs found

### Ferromagnetic Annulus And Superconducting Vortices

The screening currents induced in a superconducting film by a magnetic
annulus whose magnetization is perpendicular to the superconductor are
calculated. We show that close to the superconductor transition temperature
$T_c$ particular values of the magnetization and radii of the annulus make the
creation of superconducting vortices energy favorable. We also show that the
magnetic annulus offers an alternative tool for vortex pinning in the
superconductor. Statistical mechanical properties of this system are discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, submitted to PR

### Vortex-line liquid phases: Longitudinal superconductivity in the lattice London model

We study the vortex-line lattice and liquid phases of a clean type-II
superconductor by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the lattice London model.
Motivated by a recent controversy regarding the presence, within this model, of
a vortex-liquid regime with longitudinal superconducting coherence over long
length scales, we directly compare two different ways to calculate the
longitudinal coherence. For an isotropic superconductor, we interpret our
results in terms of a temperature regime within the liquid phase in which
longitudinal superconducting coherence extends over length scales larger than
the system thickness studied. We note that this regime disappears in the
moderately anisotropic case due to a proliferation, close to the flux-line
lattice melting temperature, of vortex loops between the layers.Comment: 8 pages, Revtex, with eps figures. To appear in Phys. Rev.

### Vortices in a Thin Film Superconductor with a Spherical Geometry

We report results from Monte Carlo simulations of a thin film superconductor
in a spherical geometry within the lowest Landau level approximation. We
observe the absence of a phase transition to a low temperature vortex solid
phase with these boundary conditions; the system remains in the vortex liquid
phase for all accessible temperatures. The correlation lengths are measured for
phase coherence and density modulation. Both lengths display identical
temperature dependences, with an asymptotic scaling form consistent with a
continuous zero temperature transition. This contrasts with the first order
freezing transition which is seen in the alternative quasi-periodic boundary
conditions. The high temperature perturbation theory and the ground states of
the spherical system suggest that the thermodynamic limit of the spherical
geometry is the same as that on the flat plane. We discuss the advantages and
drawbacks of simulations with different geometries, and compare with current
experimental conclusions. The effect of having a large scale inhomogeneity in
the applied field is also considered.Comment: This replacment contains substantial revisions: the new article is
twice as long with new and different results on the thermodynamic limit on
the sphere plus a full discussion on the alternative boundary conditions used
in simulations in the LLL approximation. 19 pages, 12 encapsulated PostScript
figures, 1 JPEG figure, uses RevTeX (with epsf

### First principles theory of fluctuations in vortex liquids and solids

Consistent perturbation theory for thermodynamical quantities in type II
superconductors in magnetic field at low temperatures is developed. It is
complementary to the existing expansion valid at high temperatures.
Magnetization and specific heat are calculated to two loop order and compare
well to existing Monte Carlo simulations and experiments.Comment: 3 .ps fig. In press Phys. Rev.

### Supercooled vortex liquid and quantitative theory of melting of the flux line lattice in type II superconductors

A metastable homogeneous state exists down to zero temperature in systems of
repelling objects. Zero ''fluctuation temperature'' liquid state therefore
serves as a (pseudo) ''fixed point'' controlling the properties of vortex
liquid below and even around melting point. There exists Madelung constant for
the liquid in the limit of zero temperature which is higher than that of the
solid by an amount approximately equal to the latent heat of melting. This
picture is supported by an exactly solvable large $N$ Ginzburg - Landau model
in magnetic field. Based on this understanding we apply Borel - Pade
resummation technique to develop a theory of the vortex liquid in type II
superconductors. Applicability of the effective lowest Landau level model is
discussed and corrections due to higher levels is calculated. Combined with
previous quantitative description of the vortex solid the melting line is
located. Magnetization, entropy and specific heat jumps along it are
calculated. The magnetization of liquid is larger than that of solid by $%
1.8%$ irrespective of the melting temperature. We compare the result with
experiments on high $T_{c}$ cuprates $YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7}$, $DyBCO$, low $%
T_{c}$ material $(K,Ba)BiO_{3}$ and with Monte Carlo simulations.Comment: 28 pages and 4 figures. Enlarged version of paper cond-mat/0107281
with many new content

### Friction force on a vortex due to the scattering of superfluid excitations in helium II

The longitudinal friction acting on a vortex line in superfluid $^4$He is
investigated within a simple model based on the analogy between such vortex
dynamics and that of the quantal Brownian motion of a charged point particle in
a uniform magnetic field. The scattering of superfluid quasiparticle
excitations by the vortex stems from a translationally invariant interaction
potential which, expanded to first order in the vortex velocity operator, gives
rise to vortex transitions between nearest Landau levels. The corresponding
friction coefficient is shown to be, in the limit of elastic scattering
(vanishing cyclotron frequency), equivalent to that arising from the Iordanskii
formula. Proposing a simple functional form for the scattering amplitude, with
only one adjustable parameter whose value is set in order to get agreement to
the Iordanskii result for phonons, an excellent agreement is also found with
the values derived from experimental data up to temperatures about 1.5 K.
Finite values of the cyclotron frequency arising from recent theories are shown
to yield similar results. The incidence of vortex-induced quasiparticle
transitions on the friction process is estimated to be, in the roton dominated
regime, about 50 % of the value of the friction coefficient, $\sim$8 % of which
corresponds to roton-phonon transitions and $\sim$42 % to roton
$R^+\leftrightarrow R^-$ ones.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures; typos corrected, to be published in PR

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### A Gpr120-selective agonist improves insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in obese mice.

It is well known that the Ï‰-3 fatty acids (Ï‰-3-FAs; also known as n-3 fatty acids) can exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. Commonly consumed as fish products, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals, Ï‰-3-FAs have a number of health benefits ascribed to them, including reduced plasma triglyceride levels, amelioration of atherosclerosis and increased insulin sensitivity. We reported that Gpr120 is the functional receptor for these fatty acids and that Ï‰-3-FAs produce robust anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing effects, both in vivo and in vitro, in a Gpr120-dependent manner. Indeed, genetic variants that predispose to obesity and diabetes have been described in the gene encoding GPR120 in humans (FFAR4). However, the amount of fish oils that would have to be consumed to sustain chronic agonism of Gpr120 is too high to be practical, and, thus, a high-affinity small-molecule Gpr120 agonist would be of potential clinical benefit. Accordingly, Gpr120 is a widely studied drug discovery target within the pharmaceutical industry. Gpr40 is another lipid-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, and it has been difficult to identify compounds with a high degree of selectivity for Gpr120 over Gpr40 (ref. 11). Here we report that a selective high-affinity, orally available, small-molecule Gpr120 agonist (cpdA) exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vitro and in obese mice in vivo. Gpr120 agonist treatment of high-fat diet-fed obese mice causes improved glucose tolerance, decreased hyperinsulinemia, increased insulin sensitivity and decreased hepatic steatosis. This suggests that Gpr120 agonists could become new insulin-sensitizing drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other human insulin-resistant states in the future

### Thermal fluctuations and disorder effects in vortex lattices

We calculate using loop expansion the effect of fluctuations on the structure
function and magnetization of the vortex lattice and compare it with existing
MC results. In addition to renormalization of the height of the Bragg peaks of
the structure function, there appears a characteristic saddle shape ''halos''
around the peaks. The effect of disorder on magnetization is also calculated.
All the infrared divergencies related to soft shear cancel.Comment: 10 pages, revtex file, one figur

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