84 research outputs found

    The adapted American Academy of Sleep Medicine sleep scoring criteria in one month old infants : A means to improve comparability?

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    Objective: The lack of standards induces variability in the sleep staging of infants less than two months of age. We evaluated the feasibility of the 2012 AASM sleep scoring rules for healthy one month old infants. Methods: 84 polysomnographies were scored into sleep stages with the adapted AASM criteria. The acquired sleep parameters were compared with the parameters in the literature. In addition the effect of age on sleep was studied. Results: The two independent scorers achieved substantial agreement by using the adapted AASM criteria. The infants' sleep parameters showed marked variability. The amount of active sleep was 36.7% (mean, range 21.3-54.1%), quiet sleep 41.5% (30.3-57.7%) and indeterminate sleep 21.6% (9.7-36.0%). With age sleep became more continuous, but the sleep stage percentages did not change. Our sleep parameters differed clearly from the parameters presented in the literature. Conclusions: The adapted scoring rules were reproducible. This encourages their use in clinical practice, as no uniform recommendations exist. Significance: Normal values are essential in pediatric sleep medicine and the individual variability in the sleep parameters of healthy infants advocates the standardisation of scoring methods. Here we present sleep stage normative values for one month old infants based on the AASM scoring criteria. (C) 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Peer reviewe

    Volatile emission from strawberry plants is induced by mite and leaf beetle feeding and methyl jasmonate

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    We have studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from young strawberry plants, cultivars Polka and Honeoye, after feeding by several strawberry herbivores under laboratory conditions. VOC profile of strawberry plants is highly dominated by green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are released also due to mechanical damage. Our results reveal that strawberry has potential for inducible VOC defence, and this encourages testing the attractiveness of these strawberry VOCs to predatory mites

    CPAP Treatment Partly Normalizes Sleep Spindle Features in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decreases sleep spindle density and frequency. We evaluated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on different features of sleep spindles. Methods. Twenty OSA patients underwent two night polysomnographies in a diagnostic phase and one night polysomnography after 6 months of CPAP treatment. The control group comprised 20 healthy controls. Sleep spindles were analyzed by a previously developed automated method. Unilateral and bilateral spindles were identified in central and frontopolar brain locations. Spindle density and frequency were determined for the first and last half of the NREM time. Results. The density of bilateral central spindles, which did not change in the untreated OSA patients, increased towards the morning hours during CPAP treatment and in the controls. Central spindles did not become faster with sleep in OSA patients and the central spindles remained slow in the left hemisphere even with CPAP. Conclusion. CPAP treatment normalized spindle features only partially. The changes may be associated with deficits in thalamocortical spindle generating loops. Significance. This study shows that some sleep spindle changes persist after CPAP treatment in OSA patients. The association of these changes to daytime symptoms in OSA patients needs to be further evaluated

    Nighttime melatonin secretion and sleep architecture: different associations in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women

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    Background: Sleep quality typically decreases after menopause, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Concentrations of melatonin are lower and its secretion profiles different before and after menopause. However, whether and how melatonin and sleep architecture are associated in women of different reproductive states have not been examined to date. Methods: Overnight serum melatonin samples were taken from 17 perimenopausal and 18 postmenopausal healthy women. Sleep quality was measured with all-night polysomnography recordings. Results: Melatonin concentrations tended to be the lowest during NREM sleep, and were associated with higher odds of transitions from wake to NREM sleep. The curves of predicted overnight melatonin values from linear mixed models varied according to sleep phases (NREM, REM, Wake) in perimenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. In perimenopause higher melatonin area under curve (AUC) correlated with higher slow-wave activity (p = 0.043), and higher minimum concentrations with shorter slow-wave sleep (SWS) latency (p = 0.029). In postmenopause higher mean and maximum melatonin concentrations and AUC correlated with lower SWS percentage (p = 0.044, p = 0.029, p = 0.032), and higher mean (p = 0.032), maximum (p = 0.032) and minimum (p = 0.037) concentrations with more awakenings from REM sleep. In the age- and BMI-adjusted regression models, the association between higher maximum (p = 0.046) melatonin concentration and lower SWS percentage remained. Conclusions: The relationship between melatonin and sleep architecture differed in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. After menopause, high melatonin concentrations were associated with worse sleep. Whether these different patterns are related to aging of the reproductive system, and to decrease in menopausal sleep quality, remains to be elucidated. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).Peer reviewe

    Local changes in computational non-rapid eye movement sleep depth in infants

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    Objective: Deep NREM sleep and its hallmark EEG phenomenon slow wave activity (SWA) are under homeostatic control in adults. SWA is also locally regulated as it increases in the brain areas that have been used intensively. Moreover, in children, SWA is a marker of cortical maturation. In the present study the local properties of NREM sleep depth were evaluated using the quantitative mean frequency method. We aimed to study if age is related to NREM sleep depth in young infants. In addition, we studied if young infants have local differences in their NREM sleep. Methods: Ambulatory over-night polysomnographies were recorded in 59 healthy and full-term infants at the age of one month. The infants were divided into two age groups (= 44 weeks) to allow maturational evaluations. Results: The quantitative sleep depth analysis showed differences between the age groups. In addition, there were local sleep depth differences within the age groups. Conclusions: The sleep depth change with age is most likely related to cortical maturation, whereas the local sleep depth gradients might also reflect the use-dependent properties of SWA. (C) 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Peer reviewe

    Lääkkeiden vaikutus unen rakenteeseen ja sykevälivaihteluun

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    Vertaisarvioitu.Unihäiriöiden hoitoon käytettävä lääke saattaa joskus huonontaa unta ja päivävireyttä entisestään. Bentsodiatsepiinit korjaavat unen kokemisen häiriötä mutta vähentävät syvää unta ja pahentavat uniapneaa. Monet masennuslääkkeet vähentävät REM-unta, jonka määrä onkin masennuksen yhteydessä lisääntynyt. Osa masennuslääkkeistä lisää heräilyä, vähentää syvää unta ja lisää yöllisiä jalkaliikkeitä. Osan lääkkeistä vaikutukset uneen ovat päinvastaisia käytettäessä hyvin pieniä ja suuria annoksia. Sykevälivaihtelun ja palautumisen mittaamisesta erilaisilla älylaitteilla on tullut suosittua. Univaiheprofiiliin ja sykevälivaihteluun perustuvat analyysit eroavat aina jonkin verran toisistaan, ja ero suurenee, jos potilaalla on käytössä lääkitys, joka vaikuttaa vain jompaankumpaan. Masennus ja osa masennuslääkkeistä vähentävät sykevälivaihtelua. Myös psykoosilääkkeet, opioidit ja beetasalpaajat vaikuttavat uneen ja sykevaihteluun.Peer reviewe

    Lääkkeiden vaikutus unen rakenteeseen ja sykevälivaihteluun

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    Vertaisarvioitu.Unihäiriöiden hoitoon käytettävä lääke saattaa joskus huonontaa unta ja päivävireyttä entisestään. Bentsodiatsepiinit korjaavat unen kokemisen häiriötä mutta vähentävät syvää unta ja pahentavat uniapneaa. Monet masennuslääkkeet vähentävät REM-unta, jonka määrä onkin masennuksen yhteydessä lisääntynyt. Osa masennuslääkkeistä lisää heräilyä, vähentää syvää unta ja lisää yöllisiä jalkaliikkeitä. Osan lääkkeistä vaikutukset uneen ovat päinvastaisia käytettäessä hyvin pieniä ja suuria annoksia. Sykevälivaihtelun ja palautumisen mittaamisesta erilaisilla älylaitteilla on tullut suosittua. Univaiheprofiiliin ja sykevälivaihteluun perustuvat analyysit eroavat aina jonkin verran toisistaan, ja ero suurenee, jos potilaalla on käytössä lääkitys, joka vaikuttaa vain jompaankumpaan. Masennus ja osa masennuslääkkeistä vähentävät sykevälivaihtelua. Myös psykoosilääkkeet, opioidit ja beetasalpaajat vaikuttavat uneen ja sykevaihteluun.Peer reviewe

    Season is related to the slow wave and sigma activity of infants and toddlers

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    Objective/Background: Slow wave activity (SWA) and sigma frequency activity (SFA) are hallmarks of NREM sleep EEG and important indicators of neural plasticity, development of the central nervous system, and cognition. However, little is known about the factors that modulate these sleep EEG activities, especially in small children. Patients/methods: We analyzed the power spectral densities of SWA (1e4 Hz) and SFA range (10e15 Hz) from six EEG derivations of 56 infants (8 months) and 60 toddlers (24 months) during their all-night sleep and during the first and the last half of night sleep. The spectral values were compared between the four seasons. Results: In the spring group of infants, compared with the darker seasons, SFA was lower in the centrooccipital EEG derivations during both halves of the night. The SWA findings of the infants were restricted to the last half of the night (SWA2) and frontally, where SWA2 was higher during winter than spring. The toddlers presented less frontal SWA2 during winter compared with autumn. Both age groups showed a reduction in both SWA and SFA towards the last half of the night. Conclusions: The sleep EEG spectral power densities are more often associated with seasons in infants’ SFA range. The results might stem from seasonally changing light exposure, but the exact mechanism warrants further study. Moreover, contrary to the adult-like increment of SFA, the SFA at both ages was lower at the last part of the night sleep. This suggests different regulation of spindle activity in infants and toddlers.Peer reviewe
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