62 research outputs found

    Visible quantum plasmonics from metallic nanodimers

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    We report theoretical evidence that bulk nonlinear materials weakly interacting with highly localized plasmonic modes in ultra-sub-wavelength metallic nanostructures can lead to nonlinear effects at the single plasmon level in the visible range. In particular, the two-plasmon interaction energy in such systems is numerically estimated to be comparable with the typical plasmon linewidths. Localized surface plasmons are thus predicted to exhibit a purely nonclassical behavior, which can be clearly identified by a sub-Poissonian second-order correlation in the signal scattered from the quantized plasmonic field under coherent electromagnetic excitation. We explicitly show that systems sensitive to single-plasmon scattering can be experimentally realized by combining electromagnetic confinement in the interstitial region of gold nanodimers with local infiltration or deposition of ordinary nonlinear materials. We also propose configurations that could allow to realistically detect such an effect with state-of-the-art technology, overcoming the limitations imposed by the short plasmonic lifetime

    Interaction and coherence of a plasmon-exciton polariton condensate

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    Polaritons are quasiparticles arising from the strong coupling of electromagnetic waves in cavities and dipolar oscillations in a material medium. In this framework, localized surface plasmon in metallic nanoparticles defining optical nanocavities have attracted increasing interests in the last decade. This interest results from their sub-diffraction mode volume, which offers access to extremely high photonic densities by exploiting strong scattering cross-sections. However, high absorption losses in metals have hindered the observation of collective coherent phenomena, such as condensation. In this work we demonstrate the formation of a non-equilibrium room temperature plasmon-exciton-polariton condensate with a long range spatial coherence, extending a hundred of microns, well over the excitation area, by coupling Frenkel excitons in organic molecules to a multipolar mode in a lattice of plasmonic nanoparticles. Time-resolved experiments evidence the picosecond dynamics of the condensate and a sizeable blueshift, thus measuring for the first time the effect of polariton interactions in plasmonic cavities. Our results pave the way to the observation of room temperature superfluidity and novel nonlinear phenomena in plasmonic systems, challenging the common belief that absorption losses in metals prevent the realization of macroscopic quantum states.Comment: 23 pages, 5 figures, SI 7 pages, 5 figure

    Room temperature Bloch surface wave polaritons

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    Polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasi-particles that have gathered a significant attention for their capability to show room temperature and out-of-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation. More recently, a novel class of ultrafast optical devices have been realized by using flows of polariton fluids, such as switches, interferometers and logical gates. However, polariton lifetimes and propagation distance are strongly limited by photon losses and accessible in-plane momenta in usual microcavity samples. In this work, we show experimental evidence of the formation of room temperature propagating polariton states arising from the strong coupling between organic excitons and a Bloch surface wave. This result, which was only recently predicted, paves the way for the realization of polariton devices that could allow lossless propagation up to macroscopic distances

    Multi-mode fiber reservoir computing overcomes shallow neural networks classifiers

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    In disordered photonics, one typically tries to characterize the optically opaque material in order to be able to deliver light or perform imaging through it. Among others, multi-mode optical fibers are extensively studied because they are cheap and easy-to-handle complex devices. Here, instead, we use the reservoir computing paradigm to turn these optical tools into random projectors capable of introducing a sufficient amount of interaction to perform non-linear classification. We show that training a single logistic regression layer on the data projected by the fiber improves the accuracy with respect to learning it on the raw images. Surprisingly, the classification accuracy performed with physical measurements is higher than the one obtained using the standard transmission matrix model, a widely accepted tool to describe light transmission through disordered devices. Consistently with the current theory of deep neural networks, we also reveal that the classifier lives in a flatter region of the loss landscape when trained on fiber data. These facts suggest that multi-mode fibers exhibit robust generalization properties, thus making them promising tools for optically-aided machine learning

    Interactions and scattering of quantum vortices in a polariton fluid

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    Quantum vortices, the quantized version of classical vortices, play a prominent role in superfluid and superconductor phase transitions. However, their exploration at a particle level in open quantum systems has gained considerable attention only recently. Here we study vortex pair interactions in a resonant polariton fluid created in a solid-state microcavity. By tracking the vortices on picosecond time scales, we reveal the role of nonlinearity, as well as of density and phase gradients, in driving their rotational dynamics. Such effects are also responsible for the split of composite spin-vortex molecules into elementary half-vortices, when seeding opposite vorticity between the two spinorial components. Remarkably, we also observe that vortices placed in close proximity experience a pull-push scenario leading to unusual scattering-like events that can be described by a tunable effective potential. Understanding vortex interactions can be useful in quantum hydrodynamics and in the development of vortex-based lattices, gyroscopes, and logic devices.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, Supplementary Material and 5 movies included in arXi
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