2,914 research outputs found

    The Modal Bond of Analytic Pragmatism

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    In his recent John Locke Lectures, Robert Brandom defends a view of pragmatism as an extension of the classical project of semantic analysis powerful enough as to incorporate not only relations among meanings, but also, and more fundamentally, relations among meaning and use. The paper explores one of the core aspects of this project ‚Äď the relation between modal, normative, and empirical vocabularies. Brandom‚Äô focus on a general semantics for non-logical vocabularies intends to meet and answer the empiricist concerns about the intelligibility of modal concepts, which are themselves couched in a modal metavocabulary. Brandom‚Äôs purpose is to show that, in using ordinary empirical vocabulary, ¬ęin order to be able to talk at all, to make claims and inferences, one must already know how to do everything necessary in principle to deploy modal and normative vocabulary¬Ľ. This is the so-called ¬ęKant-Sellars thesis¬Ľ. In the first part, I present the general framework of analytic pragmatism, the rationale for that project, and its normative foundation. Although the project is in continuity with the goal, pursued in Making It Explicit, of explaining inferential semantics in terms of a normative pragmatics, more structure is added, which clarifies the foundation of the overall enterprise. In the second part, I focus on some objections to the complementary structure of normative and modal vocabularies, and defend a different interpretation of its foundational structure. The goal is to show the modal vocabulary underlies the conceivability and the very inferential practices in which normative vocabulary is involved

    Whistleblowing and complicity in normative theorizing on political corruption

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    First published online July 17, 2023In their work ‚ÄúPolitical Corruption: The Internal Enemy of Public Institutions,‚ÄĚ Ceva and Ferretti defend a conception of corruption as a breach of the duty of accountability for officeholders. I address two key aspects of their proposal. First, I contend that whistleblowing disclosures should be limited to acts of last resort, rather than as a common practice of ensuring answerability. Second, I argue that their account does not adequately distinguish between degrees of involvement in corrupt activities. Within hierarchical organizations, not all officeholders possess the same capacity and power to counteract unjust practices. Different contributory roles entail varying degrees of responsibility within the normative structure of answerability defended by the authors.The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by the Funda√ß√£o para a Ci√™ncia e a Tecnologia (grant number EXPL/FER-ETC/1226/2021)

    Liberty, secrecy, and the right of assessment

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    In this article we argue that governmental practices of secrecy threaten the epistemic dimension of rights. We defend the view that possessing a right entitles its holder to the largest extent of available knowledge of the cir- cumstances that may impede the enjoyment of that right. We call this the ‚Äėepis- temic entitlement‚Äô of rights. Such an entitlement holds in ideal conditions once full transparency is assumed. However, under non-ideal conditions secrecy is a fact that should be accounted for. We argue that, under such conditions, interference due to secrecy is legitimate when the circumstances under which it occurs are open to assessment by the right-holder. We call this the ‚Äėright of assessment‚Äô. It ensures the ex-post fulfillment of the epistemic entitlement under non-ideal con- ditions of partial compliance where full transparency is unattainable due to the fact of secrecy. The right of assessment shields against arbitrary interference by imposing an obligation on the government to provide justification for any inter- ference in the sphere of fundamental rights.Open access funding provided by FCT|FCCN (b-on). Funding for this article was provided by Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Grant n. EXPL/FER-ETC/1226/2021)

    Robotic double-loop reconstruction method following total gastrectomy

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    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a challenge. The reconstructive time is a particular issue and researchers have adopted a large variety of solutions and produced heterogeneous data. The reconstructive phase can be divided into two major categories based on the approach adopted: the execution of extracorporeal versus intracorporeal anastomosis. In turn, the surgical team can perform the latter with laparoscopic or robotic assistance. However, the question is, how should a robotic esophagojejunal anastomosis be performed after total gastrectomy? Most articles in the literature have reported the execution of mechanical anastomoses [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6], especially with circular staplers via the creation of a manual purse-string around the anvil. Other solutions have described the use of the Orvil or the overlap technique. Only three authors have reported intracorporeal sutures with a completely robotic-sewn anastomosis [7] [8] [9]. A new robotic technique (the Parisi technique) was developed and adopted at St. Mary’s Hospital, Terni, Italy. A double-loop reconstruction method with an intracorporeal robot-sewn anastomosis is performe

    A cosmopolitanism of fear: the global significance of terrorism after the 9/11

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    In this article, I propose a characterization of cosmopolitanism as a common concern against the global threat of post 9/11. I call it the ‚Äėcosmopolitanism of fear‚Äô, referring to the idea that people in both affluent and non affluent societies share the same need for safety and public security. I start from the premise that cosmopolitan theorizing is necessary to understand the global threat of terrorism and of the security policies that followed its outburst. Given this premise, my concern focuses on the cosmopolitan characterization of global terrorism (sec. 2) and how democratic theory should address the role of fundamental liberties in a world of enhanced securization (sec. 3). I argue that while fear lends support to the global response to these new forms of terrorism, the uneven distribution of the burdens of security in the war on terror reflects the status quo of global inequality. Post 9/11 terrorism and the war on terror have only made the socio-economic cleavages more acute, without bringing more democracy or justice to populations that both terrorists and warmongers claim to represent.FCT -Funda√ß√£o para a Ci√™ncia e a Tecnologia(SFRH/BPD/ 108669/2015)info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The Protection of whistleblowers in Europe

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    Whistleblowing is the act of disclosing information from a public institution or private organisation with the purpose of revealing cases of corruption or secrecy that are of immediate or potential danger to the public interest. When systems of public control and accountability fail, whistleblowing is a measure of last resort against corruption and unrestrained secrecy, and should then be granted legal protection. This study argues that the European Union should stand up for the legal protection of whistleblowers and encourage their contribution towards more transparent institutions and economic transactions. To this purpose, it outlines a set of policy recommendations for the introduction of a European Directive in this field

    Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. Our experience and review of the literature

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    NTRODUCTION: Over the years various therapeutic techniques for diverticulitis have been developed. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL) appears to be a safe and useful treatment, and it could be an effective alternative to colonic resection in emergency surgery. AIM: This prospective observational study aims to assess the safety and benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We surgically treated 70 patients urgently for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colostomy (Hartmann technique); 21 (30%) patients underwent peritoneal laparoscopic lavage; 4 (5.7%) patients underwent colostomy by the Mikulicz technique; and the remaining 13 (18.6%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colorectal anastomosis with a protective ileostomy. RESULTS: The 66 patients examined were divided into 3 groups: 32 patients were treated with urgent surgery according to the Hartmann procedure; 13 patients were treated with resection and colorectal anastomosis; 21 patients were treated urgently with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. We had no intraoperative complications. The overall mortality was 4.3% (3 patients). In the LPL group the morbidity rate was 33.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Currently it cannot be said that LPL is better in terms of mortality and morbidity than colonic resection. These data may, however, be proven wrong by greater attention in the selection of patients to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage

    Should european countries refuse entrance to migrants that do not speak their language? A case for the right to family life

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    This article analyses the recent case of an ECJ ruling concerning Member States’ possibility to require third county nationals (TCNs) to pass a civic integration examination prior to family reunification. Following a description of the content of the right to family life for non-EU citizens residing in the EU, the article discusses the controversies surrounding the ECJ’s ruling, as well as the ethical and policy implication of the decision. The article argues that, while the Court’s decision is in line with the European Directive on Family Reunification, it does not take full consideration of the consequences of the Dutch policy regarding civic integration tests. In particular, the Court overlooks the fact that, while the test is hardly functional to state the capacity of integration, it acts as a form of ex-ante discrimination that contravenes Article 7 of the European Convention and Article 8 of the European Charter on the right to family life
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