32 research outputs found

    L'Emancipazione della donna in Tunisia dal Protettorato francese a Bourguiba

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    During the 20th Century, the woman question was a fundamental issue in Tunisian society: five months after the end of France Protectorate, in 1956, the promulgation of the Code of Personal Status (CSP) introduced important innovations in legal terms: by using of ijtihad, the CPS declared the abolition of polygamy, the replacement of repudiation in favour of the institution of divorce. In the same year, the National Union of Tunisian Women (UNFT) was born supported by the Neo-Destour party. Although the CSP and Bourguiba’s reforms benefited from intellectual and cultural trends in Islamic reformism, especially the action of important personalities such as Khayr al-Din, who founded Sadiqi College (1875), where the modern Tunisian elitĂ©s were educated on the Occidental model and Tahar Haddad, first thinker who argued for women’s rights into his book Our Women in the shari‘a and Society (1930).The absence of female education was the main problem for woman’s emancipation and for the advancement of society. Tunisian feminism started taking shape in the 1930s. Before that, two Tunisian women had taken off their hijab at a public conference following the example of Egyptian woman Huda ShaÊ»rawi, leader of the first feminist movement in the Arab world. In Tunisia women’s activism developed before the independence through the efforts of different women organizations. All these factors contributed considerably to the maturation of Tunisian society, female consciousness and gender policy

    COVID-19 pandemic and the gender divide at work and home

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    Publication metadata The COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated inequalities in many dimensions of European societies, including inequalities between women and men in several key domains. This report looks at gender inequalities that existed prior to the COVID-19 crisis and describes in what ways the pandemic has impacted on gender divides. It also analyses the various policy responses of national governments across the EU to address gender divides, and to prevent their widening during the pandemic. The effects of the pandemic on employment at EU-level has been remarkably gender-neutral on the whole, with nuances emerging within different sectors and socioeconomic groups. The pre-existing gender gaps in unpaid work have persisted, leading to work–life conflicts, especially among teleworking mothers of young children. Finally, the report describes the outlook for gender inequalities in Europe, pointing to factors that will shape the future of equality between women and men: gender segregation in labour markets, gender divides in telework and hybrid work, and gender mainstreaming in policymaking – especially in relation to caregiving and care services

    New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

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    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19