462 research outputs found

    Novel duplex vapor: Electrochemical method for silicon solar cells

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    The scaled up chemical reactor for a SiF4-Na reaction system is examined for increased reaction rate and production rate. The reaction system which now produces 5 kg batches of mixed Si and NaF is evaluated. The reactor design is described along with an analysis of the increased capacity of the Na chip feeder. The reactor procedure is discussed and Si coalescence in the reaction products is diagnosed

    Novel duplex vapor-electrochemical method for silicon solar cells

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    Optimization studies were carried out for the SiF4-Na reaction with solid Na feed. The goals of the study were the consistent production of high purity reaction products and the gathering of relevant information needed to scale-up the reactor. Parameters studied include: (1) effect of surface to volume ratio of Na slices on the extent of reaction; (2) effect of Na surface oxidation on the extent of reaction; (3) effect of external heating on the extent of SiF4-Na reaction; (4) effect of Na slice addition rate on extent of the reaction; and (5) SiF4-Na reaction - high pressure experiments. An investigation was also made of the possible role played by NaF as a fluxing agent during the separation of silicon by melting of the reaction product (Si + NaF) mixture. Since silicon can be produced by the thermite reaction between Na2SiF6 and Na, studies were initiated to gather information on parameters which control the efficiency of the thermite reaction

    Novel duplex vapor-electrochemical method for silicon solar cells

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    Silicon obtained by the SiF4-Na reaction was analyzed by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS). Silicon samples prepared from induction melted powder were evaluated for electrical properties using four point probe conductivity and thermoelectric methods. SiF4-Na reaction under P sub SiF4 greater than 1 atmosphere. The amount of silicon produced was increased from 25 g per batch (in the glass reactor) to greater than 70 g per batch in the stainless steel reactor. The study of the effects of reaction variables such as P sub SiF4 and maximum temperature attained on the particle size of silicon powder showed that the silicon particle size tends to grow larger with increasing pressure of the SiF4 gas in the reaction system

    Novel duplex vapor-electrochemical method for silicon solar cells

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    Silicon was produced by alternate pulse feeding of the reactants SiF4 gas and liquid sodium. The average temperature in the reactor could be controlled, by regulating the amount of reactant in each pulse. Silicon tetrafluoride gas was analyzed by mass spectrometry to determine the nature and amount of contained volatile impurities which included silicon oxyfluorides, sulfur oxyfluorides, and sulfur dioxide. Sodium metal was analyzed by emission spectrography, and it was found to contain only calcium and copper as impurities

    Characterization of solar-grade silicon produced by the SiF4-Na process

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    A process was developed for producing low cost solar grade silicon by the reaction between SiF4 gas and sodium metal. The results of the characterization of the silicon are presented. These results include impurity levels, electronic properties of the silicon after crystal growth, and the performance of solar photovoltaic cells fabricated from wafers of the single crystals. The efficiency of the solar cells fabricated from semiconductor silicon and SiF4-Na silicon was the same

    Experimentación geométrica y constructiva en piedra: algunos casos especiales de escaleras de caracol

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    Stonecutting specialized literature often describes, specifically between the 16th and the 18th century, complex spiral staircases that, in many cases, have never been carried out practically. At the same time, hidden inside of towers and turrets or concealed in buttresses, there is a variety of built examples whose arrangements differentiate from those of the written treatises, showing an outstanding technical mastery, clear sign of experimentation and professional training. They are characterized by their complex geometry and complicated construction, which emphasizes their singularity in comparison to their small dimension and their irrelevant location. Both models, those conceived and drawn in the treatises, but not built, and those constructed in churches and cathedrals, but not considered in the treatises, are the objective of this paper. To this end, we will look at some of these stairs, analysing them and trying to find the source of their existence.La literatura técnica de la cantería describió, fundamentalmente entre el siglo XVI y el XVIII, complejos caracoles de piedra que, en algunos casos, no se llevaron nunca a la práctica. Asimismo, escondidos en torreones y disimulados en machones, estribos y contrafuertes encontramos ejemplos construidos, con soluciones distintas a las de los tratados escritos, de un gran virtuosismo técnico, testigos evidentes de procesos de experimentación y capacitación profesional. Su compleja geometría y difícil construcción las caracteriza, y acentúa aún más su singularidad en contraposición con su pequeña dimensión y su secundaria ubicación. Ambos modelos, los pensados y dibujados en los tratados, pero no construidos, y los construidos en iglesias y catedrales, pero no contemplados en los tratados, son el objeto de este artículo. En él, hacemos un recorrido por algunas de esas escaleras especiales, estudiándolas y tratando de encontrar el porqué de su existencia

    Novel duplex vapor electrochemical method for silicon solar cells

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    Progress in the development of low-cost solar arrays is reported. Topics covered include: (1) development of a simplified feed system for the Na used in the Na-SiF4 reactor; (2) production of high purity silicon through the reduction of sodium fluosilicate with sodium metal; (3) the leaching process for recovering silicon from the reaction products of the SiF4-Na reaction; and (4) silicon separation by the melting of the reaction product

    Algumas considerações sobre o estudo estatístico de medições de dose em grãos de argamassas por luminescência estimulada opticamente

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    Fundação das Universidades PortuguesasMinisterio de Ciencia e Innovación (Espanha)Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)Ação Integrada E-141”(Fundação das Universidades Portuguesas)/“Acción Integrada PT2009-0077” (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación)/PEst-OE/CTE/UI0697/201

    Microscopy studies in support of dating of mortars of historical buildings

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    Fundação das Universidades PortuguesasMinisterio de Ciencia e InnovaciónFundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT

    A modular cloning toolkit for genome editing in plants

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    Background CRISPR/Cas has recently become a widely used genome editing tool in various organisms, including plants. Applying CRISPR/Cas often requires delivering multiple expression units into plant and hence there is a need for a quick and easy cloning procedure. The modular cloning (MoClo), based on the Golden Gate (GG) method, has enabled development of cloning systems with standardised genetic parts, e.g. promoters, coding sequences or terminators, that can be easily interchanged and assembled into expression units, which in their own turn can be further assembled into higher order multigene constructs. Results Here we present an expanded cloning toolkit that contains 103 modules encoding a variety of CRISPR/Cas-based nucleases and their corresponding guide RNA backbones. Among other components, the toolkit includes a number of promoters that allow expression of CRISPR/Cas nucleases (or any other coding sequences) and their guide RNAs in monocots and dicots. As part of the toolkit, we present a set of modules that enable quick and facile assembly of tRNA-sgRNA polycistronic units without a PCR step involved. We also demonstrate that our tRNA-sgRNA system is functional in wheat protoplasts. Conclusions We believe the presented CRISPR/Cas toolkit is a great resource that will contribute towards wider adoption of the CRISPR/Cas genome editing technology and modular cloning by researchers across the plant science community
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