24,455 research outputs found

    New Results from a Near-Infrared Search for Hidden Broad-Line Regions in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

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    This paper reports the latest results from a near-infrared search for hidden broad-line regions (BLRs: FWHM >~ 2,000 km/s) in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs). The new sample contains thirty-nine ULIGs from the 1-Jy sample selected for their lack of BLRs at optical wavelengths. The results from this new study are combined with those from our previous optical and near-infrared surveys to derive the fraction of all ULIGs with optical or near-infrared signs of genuine AGN activity (either a BLR or [Si VI] emission). Comparisons of the dereddened emission-line luminosities of the optical or obscured BLRs detected in the ULIGs of the 1-Jy sample with those of optical quasars indicate that the obscured AGN/quasar in ULIGs is the main source of energy in at least 15 -- 25% of all ULIGs in the 1-Jy sample. This fraction is 30 -- 50% among ULIGs with L_ir > 10^{12.3} L_sun. These results are compatible with those from recent mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys carried out with ISO. (abridged)Comment: 40 pages including 10 figures and 3 tables (Table 3 should be printed in landscape mode

    Carbon deposition model for oxygen-hydrocarbon combustion. Task 6: Data analysis and formulation of an empirical model

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    The formation and deposition of carbon (soot) was studied in the Carbon Deposition Model for Oxygen-Hydrocarbon Combustion Program. An empirical, 1-D model for predicting soot formation and deposition in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generators/preburners was derived. The experimental data required to anchor the model were identified and a test program to obtain the data was defined. In support of the model development, cold flow mixing experiments using a high injection density injector were performed. The purpose of this investigation was to advance the state-of-the-art in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generator design by developing a reliable engineering model of gas generator operation. The model was formulated to account for the influences of fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, and gas generator hardware design on soot formation and deposition

    Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family: improved signature and prediction of substrate specificity

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    BACKGROUND The Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family is a ubiquitous family of heavy metal transporters. Much interest in this family has focused on implications for human health and bioremediation. In this work a broad phylogenetic study has been undertaken which, considered in the context of the functional characteristics of some fully characterised CDF transporters, has aimed at identifying molecular determinants of substrate selectivity and at suggesting metal specificity for newly identified CDF transporters. RESULTS Representative CDF members from all three kingdoms of life (Archaea, Eubacteria, Eukaryotes) were retrieved from genomic databases. Protein sequence alignment has allowed detection of a modified signature that can be used to identify new hypothetical CDF members. Phylogenetic reconstruction has classified the majority of CDF family members into three groups, each containing characterised members that share the same specificity towards the principally-transported metal, i.e. Zn, Fe/Zn or Mn. The metal selectivity of newly identified CDF transporters can be inferred by their position in one of these groups. The function of some conserved amino acids was assessed by site-directed mutagenesis in the poplar Zn2+ transporter PtdMTP1 and compared with similar experiments performed in prokaryotic members. An essential structural role can be assigned to a widely conserved glycine residue, while aspartate and histidine residues, highly conserved in putative transmembrane domains, might be involved in metal transport. The potential role of group-conserved amino acid residues in metal specificity is discussed. CONCLUSION In the present study phylogenetic and functional analyses have allowed the identification of three major substrate-specific CDF groups. The metal selectivity of newly identified CDF transporters can be inferred by their position in one of these groups. The modified signature sequence proposed in this work can be used to identify new hypothetical CDF members

    Numerical methods and calculations for droplet flow, heating and ignition

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    A numerical method was devised and employed to solve a variety of problems related to liquid droplet combustion. The basic transport equations of mass, momentum and energy were formulated in terms of generalized nonorthogonal coordinates, which allows for adaptive griding and arbitrary particle shape. Example problems are solved for internal droplet heating, droplet ignition and high Reynolds number flow over a droplet

    Outflows in Infrared-Luminous Starbursts at z < 0.5. II. Analysis and Discussion

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    We have performed an absorption-line survey of outflowing gas in 78 starburst-dominated, infrared-luminous galaxies. This is the largest study of superwinds at z < 3. Superwinds are found in almost all infrared-luminous galaxies, and changes in detection rate with SFR--winds are found twice as often in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) as in less-luminous galaxies--reflect different wind geometries. The maximum velocities we measure are 600 km/s, though most of the outflowing gas has lower velocities (100-200 km/s). (One galaxy has velocities exceeding 1000 km/s.) Velocities in LINERs are higher than in HII galaxies, and outflowing ionized gas often has higher velocities than the neutral gas. Wind properties (velocity, mass, momentum, and energy) scale with galaxy properties (SFR, luminosity, and galaxy mass), consistent with ram-pressure driving of the wind. Wind properties increase strongly with increasing galactic mass, contrary to expectation. These correlations flatten at high SFR (> 10-100 M_sun/yr), luminosities, and masses. This saturation is due to a lack of gas remaining in the wind's path, a common neutral gas terminal velocity, and/or a decrease in the efficiency of thermalization of the supernovae energy. It means that mass entrainment efficiency, rather than remaining constant, declines in galaxies with SFR > 10 M_sun/yr and M_K < -24. Half of our sample consists of ULIRGs, which host as much as half of the star formation in the universe at z > 1. The powerful, ubiquitous winds we observe in these galaxies imply that superwinds in massive galaxies at redshifts above unity play an important role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium.Comment: 68 pages, 20 figures in AASTeX preprint style; to appear in September issue of ApJS; Figure 17 replaced with correct versio
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