23,180 research outputs found

    Nonlinear chiral refrigerators

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    We investigate a mesoscopic refrigerator based on chiral quantum Hall edge channels. We discuss a three-terminal cooling device in which charge transport occurs between a pair of voltage-biased terminals only. The third terminal, which is to be cooled, is set as a voltage probe with vanishing particle flux. This largely prevents the generation of direct Joule heating which ensures a high coefficient of performance. Cooling operation is based on energy-dependent quantum transmissions. The latter are implemented with the aid of two tunable scattering resonances (quantum dots). To find the optimal performance point and the largest temperature difference created with our refrigerator, it is crucial to address the nonlinear regime of transport, accounting for electron-electron interaction effects. Our numerical simulations show that the maximal cooling power can be tuned with the quantum dot couplings and energy levels. Further, we provide analytical expressions within a weakly nonlinear scattering-matrix formalism which allow us to discuss the conditions for optimal cooling in terms of generalized thermopowers. Our results are important for the assessment of chiral conductors as promising candidates for efficient quantum refrigerators with low dissipation.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures. v2: minor changes. Published versio

    Dialectometric analysis of language variation in Twitter

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    In the last few years, microblogging platforms such as Twitter have given rise to a deluge of textual data that can be used for the analysis of informal communication between millions of individuals. In this work, we propose an information-theoretic approach to geographic language variation using a corpus based on Twitter. We test our models with tens of concepts and their associated keywords detected in Spanish tweets geolocated in Spain. We employ dialectometric measures (cosine similarity and Jensen-Shannon divergence) to quantify the linguistic distance on the lexical level between cells created in a uniform grid over the map. This can be done for a single concept or in the general case taking into account an average of the considered variants. The latter permits an analysis of the dialects that naturally emerge from the data. Interestingly, our results reveal the existence of two dialect macrovarieties. The first group includes a region-specific speech spoken in small towns and rural areas whereas the second cluster encompasses cities that tend to use a more uniform variety. Since the results obtained with the two different metrics qualitatively agree, our work suggests that social media corpora can be efficiently used for dialectometric analyses.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures, 1 table. Accepted to VarDial 201

    Chirality in Coulomb-blockaded quantum dots

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    We investigate the two-terminal nonlinear conductance of a Coulomb-blockaded quantum dot attached to chiral edge states. Reversal of the applied magnetic field inverts the system chirality and leads to a different polarization charge. As a result, the current--voltage characteristic is not an even function of the magnetic field. We show that the corresponding magnetic-field asymmetry arises from single-charge effects and vanishes in the limit of high temperature.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Thermoelectric transport of mesoscopic conductors coupled to voltage and thermal probes

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    We investigate basic properties of the thermopower (Seebeck coefficient) of phase-coherent conductors under the influence of dephasing and inelastic processes. Transport across the system is caused by a voltage bias or a thermal gradient applied between two terminals. Inelastic scattering is modeled with the aid of an additional probe acting as an ideal potentiometer and thermometer. We find that inelastic scattering reduces the conductor's thermopower and, more unexpectedly, generates a magnetic-field asymmetry in the Seebeck coefficient. The latter effect is shown to be a higher-order effect in the Sommerfeld expansion. We discuss our result using two illustrative examples. First, we consider a generic mesoscopic system described within random matrix theory and demonstrate that thermopower fluctuations disappear quickly as the number of probe modes increases. Second, the asymmetry is explicitly calculated in the quantum limit of a ballistic microjunction. We find that asymmetric scattering strongly enhances the effect and discuss its dependence on temperature and Fermi energy.Comment: 4+ pages, 2 figures and supplementary material. Published versio

    Heat current through an artificial Kondo impurity beyond linear response

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    We investigate the heat current of a strongly interacting quantum dot in the presence of a voltage bias in the Kondo regime. Using the slave- boson mean-field theory, we discuss the behavior of the energy flow and the Joule heating. We find that both contributions to the heat current dis- play interesting symmetry properties under reversal of the applied dc bias. We show that the symmetries arise from the behavior of the dot trans- mission function. Importantly, the transmission probability is a function of both energy and voltage. This allows us to analyze the heat current in the nonlinear regime of transport. We observe that nonlinearities ap- pear already for voltages smaller than the Kondo temperature. Finally, we suggest to use the contact and electric symmetry coefficients as a way to measure pure energy currents.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, proceeding of the Low Temperature Physics Conferenc

    Strongly nonlinear thermovoltage and heat dissipation in interacting quantum dots

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    We investigate the nonlinear regime of charge and energy transport through Coulomb-blockaded quantum dots. We discuss crossed effects that arise when electrons move in response to thermal gradients (Seebeck effect) or energy flows in reaction to voltage differences (Peltier effect). We find that the differential thermoelectric conductance shows a characteristic Coulomb butterfly structure due to charging effects. Importantly, we show that experimentally observed thermovoltage zeros are caused by the activation of Coulomb resonances at large thermal shifts. Furthermore, the power dissipation asymmetry between the two attached electrodes can be manipulated with the applied voltage, which has implications for the efficient design of nanoscale coolers.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Thermoelectric effects in graphene with local spin-orbit interaction

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    We investigate the transport properties of a graphene layer in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Quite generally, spin-orbit interactions induce spin splittings and modifications of the graphene bandstructure. We calculate within the scattering approach the linear electric and thermoelectric responses of a clean sample when the Rashba coupling is localized around a finite region. We find that the thermoelectric conductance, unlike its electric counterpart, is quite sensitive to external modulations of the Fermi energy. Therefore, our results suggest that thermocurrent measurements may serve as a useful tool to detect nonhomogeneous spin-orbit interactions present in a graphene-based device. Furthermore, we find that the junction thermopower is largely dominated by an intrinsic term independently of the spin-orbit potential scattering. We discuss the possibility of cancelling the intrinsic thermopower by resolving the Seebeck coefficient in the subband space. This causes unbalanced populations of electronic modes which can be tuned with external gate voltages or applied temperature biases.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures. The Eq.(27) and the definition of charge thermopower have been correcte
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