14 research outputs found

    AUTOMATED PENETRATION TESTING

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    Penetration testing is used to search for vulnerabilities that might exist in a system. The testing usually involves simulating different types of attacks on the target system. This type of testing provides an organized and controlled way to identify security shortcomings. The resources and time required for comprehensive testing can make penetration testing cost intensive. Consequently, such tests are usually only performed during important milestones.In this project we have automated the penetration testing process for several protocol-based attacks. Our automated penetration testing application covers several attacks based on HTTP, SIP and TCP/IP. The objective of this work is to offer a fast, reliable and automated testing tool, which is also easier to use than existing tools

    Governance with sustainable development: Overcoming the barriers

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    Indian organisations often face allegations or charges of red-tapism whereby collected evidences for future planning with sustainable development become inaccessible due to a number of reasons. Whereas it is pertinent to note that, governance of a state/nation depends upon the trust of the people to receive tangible/intangible opportunities for development in the socio-economic, legal environment. When there is deficit of trust due to corrupt practices, tracing the source for decision becomes a herculean task. The authors hypothesize that the evidences collected through investigations end up being discarded or locked up and stacked in files and never is considered for relevant for future decisions. We propose to find the actionable forces who try to use ‘power’ to strategically attain their desired goals. The paper intends to discuss the role of interested groups or state actors (top bureaucratic, politicians, and business houses) who have access to such information where scientific probe could be set up and evidence gets collected for larger good of the society. The authors hypothesize that stakeholders would incrementally destroy the core evidences such that relevant information gets disjointed for future decision making and sustainable development to give themselves a raised platform to continue their power wielding. The authors intend to compare UK model of evidence generation with that of Indian model. We propose to highlight the necessary changes to formulate relevant laws and procedures with respect to evidence collection and the accessibility of information of the policy making decisions of the governments

    Enhancer Reprogramming Confers Dependence on Glycolysis and IGF Signaling in KMT2D Mutant Melanoma.

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    Histone methyltransferase KMT2D harbors frequent loss-of-function somatic point mutations in several tumor types, including melanoma. Here, we identify KMT2D as a potent tumor suppressor in melanoma through an in vivo epigenome-focused pooled RNAi screen and confirm the finding by using a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) based on conditional and melanocyte-specific deletion of KMT2D. KMT2D-deficient tumors show substantial reprogramming of key metabolic pathways, including glycolysis. KMT2D deficiency aberrantly upregulates glycolysis enzymes, intermediate metabolites, and glucose consumption rates. Mechanistically, KMT2D loss causes genome-wide reduction of H3K4me1-marked active enhancer chromatin states. Enhancer loss and subsequent repression of IGFBP5 activates IGF1R-AKT to increase glycolysis in KMT2D-deficient cells. Pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling reduce proliferation and tumorigenesis preferentially in KMT2D-deficient cells. We conclude that KMT2D loss promotes tumorigenesis by facilitating an increased use of the glycolysis pathway for enhanced biomass needs via enhancer reprogramming, thus presenting an opportunity for therapeutic intervention through glycolysis or IGF pathway inhibitors

    Comprehensive fitness landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro reveals insights into viral resistance mechanisms.

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    With the continual evolution of new strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that are more virulent, transmissible, and able to evade current vaccines, there is an urgent need for effective anti-viral drugs. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is a leading target for drug design due to its conserved and indispensable role in the viral life cycle. Drugs targeting Mpro appear promising but will elicit selection pressure for resistance. To understand resistance potential in Mpro, we performed a comprehensive mutational scan of the protease that analyzed the function of all possible single amino acid changes. We developed three separate high throughput assays of Mpro function in yeast, based on either the ability of Mpro variants to cleave at a defined cut-site or on the toxicity of their expression to yeast. We used deep sequencing to quantify the functional effects of each variant in each screen. The protein fitness landscapes from all three screens were strongly correlated, indicating that they captured the biophysical properties critical to Mpro function. The fitness landscapes revealed a non-active site location on the surface that is extremely sensitive to mutation, making it a favorable location to target with inhibitors. In addition, we found a network of critical amino acids that physically bridge the two active sites of the Mpro dimer. The clinical variants of Mpro were predominantly functional in our screens, indicating that Mpro is under strong selection pressure in the human population. Our results provide predictions of mutations that will be readily accessible to Mpro evolution and that are likely to contribute to drug resistance. This complete mutational guide of Mpro can be used in the design of inhibitors with reduced potential of evolving viral resistance

    Identification of a Permissive Secondary Mutation That Restores the Enzymatic Activity of Oseltamivir Resistance Mutation H275Y

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    Many oseltamivir resistance mutations exhibit fitness defects in the absence of drug pressure that hinders their propagation in hosts. Secondary permissive mutations can rescue fitness defects and facilitate the segregation of resistance mutations in viral populations. Previous studies have identified a panel of permissive or compensatory mutations in neuraminidase (NA) that restore the growth defect of the predominant oseltamivir resistance mutation (H275Y) in H1N1 influenza A virus. In prior work, we identified a hyperactive mutation (Y276F) that increased NA activity by approximately 70%. While Y276F had not been previously identified as a permissive mutation, we hypothesized that Y276F may counteract the defects caused by H275Y by buffering its reduced NA expression and enzyme activity. In this study, we measured the relative fitness, NA activity, and surface expression, as well as sensitivity to oseltamivir, for several oseltamivir resistance mutations, including H275Y in the wild-type and Y276F genetic background. Our results demonstrate that Y276F selectively rescues the fitness defect of H275Y by restoring its NA surface expression and enzymatic activity, elucidating the local compensatory structural impacts of Y276F on the adjacent H275Y. IMPORTANCE The potential for influenza A virus (IAV) to cause pandemics makes understanding evolutionary mechanisms that impact drug resistance critical for developing surveillance and treatment strategies. Oseltamivir is the most widely used therapeutic strategy to treat IAV infections, but mutations in IAV can lead to drug resistance. The main oseltamivir resistance mutation, H275Y, occurs in the neuraminidase (NA) protein of IAV and reduces drug binding as well as NA function. Here, we identified a new helper mutation, Y276F, that can rescue the functional defects of H275Y and contribute to the evolution of drug resistance in IAV

    TRIM28 and Interacting KRAB-ZNFs control self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells through epigenetic repression of pro-differentiation genes

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    Reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are regulated by epigenetic machinery. Tripartite motif protein 28 (TRIM28), a universal mediator of Krüppel-associated box domain zinc fingers (KRAB-ZNFs), is known to regulate both processes; however, the exact mechanism and identity of participating KRAB-ZNF genes remain unknown. Here, using a reporter system, we show that TRIM28/KRAB-ZNFs alter DNA methylation patterns in addition to H3K9me3 to cause stable gene repression during reprogramming. Using several expression datasets, we identified KRAB-ZNFs (ZNF114, ZNF483, ZNF589) in the human genome that maintain pluripotency. Moreover, we identified target genes repressed by these KRAB-ZNFs. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that these KRAB-ZNFs directly alter gene expression of important developmental genes by modulating H3K9me3 and DNA methylation of their promoters. In summary, TRIM28 employs KRAB-ZNFs to evoke epigenetic silencing of its target differentiation genes via H3K9me3 and DNA methylation

    TRIM28 and Interacting KRAB-ZNFs Control Self-Renewal of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells through Epigenetic Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes

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    Reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are regulated by epigenetic machinery. Tripartite motif protein 28 (TRIM28), a universal mediator of Kruppel-associated box domain zinc fingers (KRAB-ZNFs), is known to regulate both processes; however, the exact mechanism and identity of participating KRAB-ZNF genes remain unknown. Here, using a reporter system, we show that TRIM28/KRAB-ZNFs alter DNA methylation patterns in addition to H3K9me3 to cause stable gene repression during reprogramming. Using several expression datasets, we identified KRAB-ZNFs (ZNF114, ZNF483, ZNF589) in the human genome that maintain pluripotency. Moreover, we identified target genes repressed by these KRAB-ZNFs. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that these KRAB-ZNFs directly alter gene expression of important developmental genes by modulating H3K9me3 and DNA methylation of their promoters. In summary, TRIM28 employs KRAB-ZNFs to evoke epigenetic silencing of its target differentiation genes via H3K9me3 and DNA methylation

    TRIM28 and Interacting KRAB-ZNFs Control Self-Renewal of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells through Epigenetic Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes

    No full text
    Reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are regulated by epigenetic machinery. Tripartite motif protein 28 (TRIM28), a universal mediator of Kruppel-associated box domain zinc fingers (KRAB-ZNFs), is known to regulate both processes; however, the exact mechanism and identity of participating KRAB-ZNF genes remain unknown. Here, using a reporter system, we show that TRIM28/KRAB-ZNFs alter DNA methylation patterns in addition to H3K9me3 to cause stable gene repression during reprogramming. Using several expression datasets, we identified KRAB-ZNFs (ZNF114, ZNF483, ZNF589) in the human genome that maintain pluripotency. Moreover, we identified target genes repressed by these KRAB-ZNFs. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that these KRAB-ZNFs directly alter gene expression of important developmental genes by modulating H3K9me3 and DNA methylation of their promoters. In summary, TRIM28 employs KRAB-ZNFs to evoke epigenetic silencing of its target differentiation genes via H3K9me3 and DNA methylation

    Dual Roles of RNF2 in Melanoma Progression

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    Epigenetic regulators have emerged as critical factors governing the biology of cancer. Here, in the context of melanoma, we show that RNF2 is prognostic, exhibiting progression-correlated expression in human melanocytic neoplasms. Through a series of complementary gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mouse and human systems, we establish that RNF2 is oncogenic and pro-metastatic. Mechanistically, RNF2-mediated invasive behavior is dependent on its ability to mono-ubiquitinate H2AK119 at the promoter of LTBP2, resulting in silencing of this negative regulator of TGFβ signaling. In contrast, RNF2's oncogenic activity does not require its catalytic activity nor does it derive from its canonical gene repression function. Instead, RNF2 drives proliferation through direct transcriptional up-regulation of the cell cycle regulator CCND2. We further show that MEK1 mediated phosphorylation of RNF2 promotes recruitment of activating histone modifiers UTX and p300 to a subset of poised promoters, which activates gene expression. In summary, RNF2 regulates distinct biological processes in the genesis and progression of melanoma via different molecular mechanisms
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