6 research outputs found

    An Experimental Investigation in Hard Turning of AISI 4140 Steel

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    There is a growing demand for new and special alloys like nickel alloys, chrome- molybdenum alloys due to their special properties like high strength, light weight, and corrosive resistance. The present work is based on the experimental investigation of chrome-molybdenum alloy to study the effect of process parameters like cutting velocity, feed, and depth of cut on the output responses like force, surface roughness, tool wear. A full factorial design with 33 lay out with total 27 numbers of runs were carried out and optimum cutting condition for all three output responses was found out using grey relational analysis method. White layer formed in a hard turned component is mainly influenced by the abrasive wear of the tool. It has immense response on the performance of product so it is necessary to find out the white layer thickness. To investigate the machined surface properties like white layer and micro-hardness, the sliced machined surface was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-hardness tester respectively. It has been found that the as speed increases, the thickness of white layer increases due to increase in flank wear. Finally, a thermo-mechanical 2D model using finite element method available in Deform 2D TM has been prepared to investigate the output responses like force. Further, the model has been validated comparing the results of simulation with the measured results

    Comparing functional outcome in lateral end clavicle fracture after conservative and plating

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    Background: Fractures of the clavicle have been traditionally treated non- operatively but has been associated with various postoperative complications. In this study, we analyzed the outcomes of the operative management and compare its results with conservative treatment considering it as standard treatment option.Methods: The present study was carried out at the Department of Orthopedics, DY Patil Medical College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai. Open fractures, fractures associated with complication like head injury with associated other bone injuries were included in this study. We excluded patients less than 18 years of age, patients with middle third fracture of clavicle and patients with medial end clavicle fracture. The fractures were classified according to Robinson’s classification. Patients were followed up every week for 4 weeks then at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The functional outcomes were assessed by Constant and Murley score.Results: We included 48 patients in the study, 34 of which were males, average age of the patients was 37.53±7.64 years. 23 injuries were on the left. There was statistically significant better union times with operative management (p=0.034). Various complications were observed like infection, implant failure, man union, non-union, deformity and skin infections, statistically seen more in patients who underwent conservative management. Overall, patients experienced excellent and good results with operative management in 6 and 12 patients respectively.Conclusions:Operative treatment gave statistically significant functional outcome and early healing compared to conservatively treated in displaced, communited lateral end clavicle fractures. 

    Prevalence and architecture of de novo mutations in developmental disorders.

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    The genomes of individuals with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders are enriched in damaging de novo mutations (DNMs) in developmentally important genes. Here we have sequenced the exomes of 4,293 families containing individuals with developmental disorders, and meta-analysed these data with data from another 3,287 individuals with similar disorders. We show that the most important factors influencing the diagnostic yield of DNMs are the sex of the affected individual, the relatedness of their parents, whether close relatives are affected and the parental ages. We identified 94 genes enriched in damaging DNMs, including 14 that previously lacked compelling evidence of involvement in developmental disorders. We have also characterized the phenotypic diversity among these disorders. We estimate that 42% of our cohort carry pathogenic DNMs in coding sequences; approximately half of these DNMs disrupt gene function and the remainder result in altered protein function. We estimate that developmental disorders caused by DNMs have an average prevalence of 1 in 213 to 1 in 448 births, depending on parental age. Given current global demographics, this equates to almost 400,000 children born per year

    Heterozygous Variants in KMT2E Cause a Spectrum of Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Epilepsy.

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    We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities

    Bi-allelic Loss-of-Function CACNA1B Mutations in Progressive Epilepsy-Dyskinesia.

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    The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.MAK is funded by an NIHR Research Professorship and receives funding from the Wellcome Trust, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital Charity, and Rosetrees Trust. E.M. received funding from the Rosetrees Trust (CD-A53) and Great Ormond Street Hospital Children's Charity. K.G. received funding from Temple Street Foundation. A.M. is funded by Great Ormond Street Hospital, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), and Biomedical Research Centre. F.L.R. and D.G. are funded by Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. K.C. and A.S.J. are funded by NIHR Bioresource for Rare Diseases. The DDD Study presents independent research commissioned by the Health Innovation Challenge Fund (grant number HICF-1009-003), a parallel funding partnership between the Wellcome Trust and the Department of Health, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (grant number WT098051). We acknowledge support from the UK Department of Health via the NIHR comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Guy's and St. Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London. This research was also supported by the NIHR Great Ormond Street Hospital Biomedical Research Centre. J.H.C. is in receipt of an NIHR Senior Investigator Award. The research team acknowledges the support of the NIHR through the Comprehensive Clinical Research Network. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, Department of Health, or Wellcome Trust. E.R.M. acknowledges support from NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, an NIHR Senior Investigator Award, and the University of Cambridge has received salary support in respect of E.R.M. from the NHS in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve. I.E.S. is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Program Grant and Practitioner Fellowship)

    Author Correction: CHD3 helicase domain mutations cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with macrocephaly and impaired speech and language

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    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Laurence Faivre, which was incorrectly given as Laurence Faive. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article