79 research outputs found

    Using models to model-check recursive schemes

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    We propose a model-based approach to the model checking problem for recursive schemes. Since simply typed lambda calculus with the fixpoint operator, lambda-Y-calculus, is equivalent to schemes, we propose the use of a model of lambda-Y-calculus to discriminate the terms that satisfy a given property. If a model is finite in every type, this gives a decision procedure. We provide a construction of such a model for every property expressed by automata with trivial acceptance conditions and divergence testing. Such properties pose already interesting challenges for model construction. Moreover, we argue that having models capturing some class of properties has several other virtues in addition to providing decidability of the model-checking problem. As an illustration, we show a very simple construction transforming a scheme to a scheme reflecting a property captured by a given model.Comment: Long version of a paper presented at TLCA 201

    On the Boundedness Problem for Higher-Order Pushdown Vector Addition Systems

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    Linear High-Order Deterministic Tree Transducers with Regular Look-Ahead

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    We introduce the notion of high-order deterministic top-down tree transducers (HODT) whose outputs correspond to single-typed lambda-calculus formulas. These transducers are natural generalizations of known models of top-tree transducers such as: Deterministic Top-Down Tree Transducers, Macro Tree Transducers, Streaming Tree Transducers... We focus on the linear restriction of high order tree transducers with look-ahead (HODTR_lin), and prove this corresponds to tree to tree functional transformations defined by Monadic Second Order (MSO) logic. We give a specialized procedure for the composition of those transducers that uses a flow analysis based on coherence spaces and allows us to preserve the linearity of transducers. This procedure has a better complexity than classical algorithms for composition of other equivalent tree transducers, but raises the order of transducers. However, we also indicate that the order of a HODTR_lin can always be bounded by 3, and give a procedure that reduces the order of a HODTR_lin to 3. As those resulting HODTR_lin can then be transformed into other equivalent models, this gives an important insight on composition algorithm for other classes of transducers. Finally, we prove that those results partially translate to the case of almost linear HODTR: the class corresponds to the class of tree transformations performed by MSO with unfolding (not closed by composition), and provide a mechanism to reduce the order to 3 in this case

    Lambda-calculus and formal language theory

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    Formal and symbolic approaches have offered computer science many application fields. The rich and fruitful connection between logic, automata and algebra is one such approach. It has been used to model natural languages as well as in program verification. In the mathematics of language it is able to model phenomena ranging from syntax to phonology while in verification it gives model checking algorithms to a wide family of programs. This thesis extends this approach to simply typed lambda-calculus by providing a natural extension of recognizability to programs that are representable by simply typed terms. This notion is then applied to both the mathematics of language and program verification. In the case of the mathematics of language, it is used to generalize parsing algorithms and to propose high-level methods to describe languages. Concerning program verification, it is used to describe methods for verifying the behavioral properties of higher-order programs. In both cases, the link that is drawn between finite state methods and denotational semantics provide the means to mix powerful tools coming from the two worlds

    Minimalist Grammars in the Light of Logic

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    In this paper, we aim at understanding the derivations of minimalist grammars without the shortest move constraint. This leads us to study the relationship of those derivations with logic. In particular we show that the membership problem of minimalist grammars without the shortest move constraint is as difficult as provability in Multiplicative Exponential Linear Logic. As a byproduct, this result gives us a new representation of those derivations with linear λ\lambda-terms. We show how to interpret those terms in a homomorphic way so as to recover the sentence they analyse. As the homorphisms we describe are rather evolved, we turn to a proof-net representation and explain how Monadic Second Order Logic and related techniques allow us both to define those proof-nets and to retrieve the sentence they analyse

    Parsing TAG with Abstract Categorial Grammar.

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    International audienceThis paper presents informally an Earley algorithm for TAG which behaves as the algorithm given by [SJ88]. This algorithm is a specialization to TAG of a more general algorithm dedicated to second order ACGs. As second order ACGs allows to encode Linear Context Free Rewriting Systems (LCFRS) [dGP04], the main purpose of this paper is to give a rough presentation of formal tools which can be used to design efficient algorithms for LCFRS

    MIX is a 2-MCFL and the word problem in Z2\mathbb{Z}^2 is solved by a third-order collapsible pushdown automaton

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    International audienceIn this work we establish that the language MIX={w∈{a;b;c}∗∣∣w∣a=∣w∣b=∣w∣c}MIX = \{w \in \{a;b;c\}^\ast \vert |w|_a = |w|_b = |w|_c\} and the language O2={w∈{a;a‾;b;b‾}∣∣w∣a=∣w∣a‾∧∣w∣b=∣w∣b‾}O_2 = \{w \in \{a;\overline{a};b;\overline{b}\} \vert |w|_a = |w|_{\overline{a}} \land |w|_b = |w|_{\overline{b}}\} are 2-MCFLs. As 2-MCFLs form a class of languages that is included in both the IO and OI hierarchies, and as O2O_2 is the group language of a simple presentation of Z2\mathbb{Z}^2 we exhibit here the first, to our knowledge, non-virtually-free group language (\textit{i.e.} non-context-free group language) that is captured by the IO and OI hierarchies. Moreover, it was a long-standing open problem whether MIX was a mildly context sensitive language or not, and it was conjectured that it was not, so we close this conjecture by giving it a negative answer
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