4,856 research outputs found

    The Onset of the Cold HI Phase in Disks of Protogalaxies

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    We discuss a possible delay experienced by protogalaxies with low column density of gas in forming stars over large scales. After the hydrogen has recombined, as the external ionizing UV flux decreases and the metal abundance ZZ increases, the HI, initially in the warm phase (T\simgt 5000 K), makes a transition to the cool phase (T\simlt 100 K). The minimum abundance ZminZ_{min} for which this phase transition takes place in a small fraction of the Hubble time decreases rapidly with increasing gas column density. Therefore in the ``anemic'' disk galaxies, where NHIN_{HI} is up to ten times smaller than for normal large spirals, the onset of the cool HI phase is delayed. The onset of gravitational instability is also delayed, since these objects are more likely to be gravitationally stable in the warm phase than progenitors of today's large spiral galaxies. The first substantial burst of star formation may occur only as late as at redshifts z∌0.5z \sim 0.5 and give a temporary high peak luminosity, which may be related to the ``faint blue objects". Galaxy disks of lower column density tend to have lower escape velocities and a starburst/galactic fountain instability which decreases the gas content of the inner disk drastically.Comment: TeX file, 24 pages, 4 figures available upon request from [email protected], to appear in The Astrophysical J. (Sept. 1

    Correlation Statistics of Irregular and Spiral Galaxies Mapped in HI

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    Several measures of galaxy size and mass obtained from the neutral hydrogen mapping of 70 dwarf irregular galaxies presented in Paper I (Hoffman et al. 1996) are compared statistically to those for the set of all available HI-mapped dwarfs and HI-mapped spirals distributed within the same spatial volume to investigate variations in Tully-Fisher relations and in surface densities as functions of galaxy size and luminosity or mass. Some ambiguities due to the ``non-commutativity'' of the correlations among the variables are addressed and linear regressions of logarithms of blue luminosity, HI and optical radii, velocity profile half-width incorporating rotation and random motions, HI mass, and indicative dynamical mass are presented and analyzed. The surface density of HI is almost constant along the sequence of size/mass/luminosity while surface density of blue luminosity increases with galaxy size. For quantities not involving HI we find no evidence for a ``break'' between dwarfs and spirals, but we do find some curvature in velocity vs. radius and in the Tully-Fisher relation. There is an indication for a difference in the correlations involving HI mass or radius between dwarfs alone and spirals alone, in the sense that irregulars have somewhat more HI mass or slightly larger HI radii than spirals at a given blue luminosity, optical radius, or velocity profile width.Comment: AASTeX, to appear in ApJ, 26 pages + 3 tables + 12 figure

    Energy input and HI spin temperatures in low pressure regions

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    Two recent (unpublished) HI emission/absorption studies carried out with good sensitivity using the Arecibo 21 cm beam are discussed. One study (Colgan, Salpeter and Terzian) looked for high velocity clouds of our own Galaxy in absorption in the directions of 63 of the brightest continuum sources reachable with the Arecibo telescope. HI emission mapping in the neighborhood of these directions was also carried out. The other study (Corbelli and Schneider) looked for absorption along lines of sight to about 50 weaker sources which pass within a few diameters of nearby disk galaxies. Neither study detected any absorption

    Particles, environments and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere

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    The eddy diffusion coefficient is estimated as a function of altitude, separately for the Jovian troposphere and mesosphere. Complex organic molecules produced by the Ly alpha photolysis of methane may possibly be the absorbers in the lower mesosphere which account for the low reflectivity of Jupiter in the near ultraviolet. The optical frequency chromophores are localized at or just below the Jovian tropopause. Candidate chromophore molecules must satisfy the condition that they are produced sufficiently rapidly that convective pyrolysis maintains the observed chromophore optical depth. The condition is satisfied if complex organic chromophores are produced with high quantum yield by NH3 photolysis at less than 2,300 A. Jovian photoautotrophs in the upper troposphere satisfy this condition well, even with fast circulation, assuming only biochemical properties of comparable terrestrial organisms. An organism in the form of a thin, gas filled balloon can grow fast enough to replicate if (1) it can survive at the low mesospheric temperatures, or if (2) photosynthesis occurs in the troposphere

    On electrostatic screening of ions in astrophysical plasmas

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    There has been some controversy over the expression for the so-called `interaction energy' due to screening of charged particles in a plasma. Even in the relatively simple case of weak screening, first discussed in the context of astrophysical plasmas by Salpeter (1954), there is disagreement. In particular, Shaviv and Shaviv (1996) have claimed recently that by not considering explicitly in his calculation the complete screening cloud, Salpeter obtained a result for the interaction energy between two nuclei separated by a distance rr which in the limit r→0r \to 0 is only 2/3 the correct value. It appears that this claim has arisen from a fundamental misconception concerning the dynamics of the interaction. We rectify this misconception, and show that Salpeter's formula is indeed correct.Comment: 17 pages, no figures, AAS Latex, to appear in The Astrophysical Journa

    Klein-Gordon lower bound to the semirelativistic ground-state energy

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    For the class of attractive potentials V(r) <= 0 which vanish at infinity, we prove that the ground-state energy E of the semirelativistic Hamiltonian H = \sqrt{m^2 + p^2} + V(r) is bounded below by the ground-state energy e of the corresponding Klein--Gordon problem (p^2 + m^2)\phi = (V(r) -e)^2\phi. Detailed results are presented for the exponential and Woods--Saxon potentials.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Selection effects and binary galaxy velocity differences

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    Measurements of the velocity differences (delta v's) in pairs of galaxies from large statistical samples have often been used to estimate the average masses of binary galaxies. A basic prediction of these models is that the delta v distribution ought to decline monotonically. However, some peculiar aspects of the kinematics have been uncovered, with an anomalous preference for delta v approx. equal to 72 km s(sup-1) appearing to be present in the data. The authors examine a large sample of binary galaxies with accurate redshift measurements and confirm that the distribution of delta v's appears to be non-monotonic with peaks at 0 and approx. 72 km s (exp -1). The authors suggest that the non-zero peak results from the isolation criteria employed in defining samples of binaries and that it indicates there are two populations of binary orbits contributing to the observed delta v distribution

    Systematic quantum corrections to screening in thermonuclear fusion

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    We develop a series expansion of the plasma screening length away from the classical limit in powers of ℏ2\hbar^{2}. It is shown that the leading order quantum correction increases the screening length in solar conditions by approximately 2% while it decreases the fusion rate by approximately 0.34 0.34%. We also calculate the next higher order quantum correction which turns out to be approximately 0.05%

    Screening in Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in the Sun

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    We evaluate the effect of electrostatic screening by ions and electrons on low-Z thermonuclear reactions in the sun. We use a mean field formalism and calculate the electron density of the screening cloud using the appropriate density matrix equation of quantum statistical mechanics. Because of well understood physical effects that are included for the first time in our treatment, the calculated enhancement of reaction rates does not agree with the frequently used interpolation formulae. Our result does agree, within small uncertainties, with Salpeter's weak screening formula. If weak screening is used instead of the commonly employed screening prescription of Graboske et al., the predicted 8^8B neutrino flux is increased by 7% and the predicted chlorine rate is increased by 0.4 SNU.Comment: 15 pages, 1 figure, submitted to ApJ. Acknowledgments, a footnote, and an explanation added. Additional information at www.sns.ias.edu/~jn