7,818 research outputs found

    Satellites of Simulated Galaxies: survival, merging, and their relation to the dark and stellar halos

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    We study the population of satellite galaxies formed in a suite of N-body/gasdynamical simulations of galaxy formation in a LCDM universe. We find little spatial or kinematic bias between the dark matter and the satellite population. The velocity dispersion of the satellites is a good indicator of the virial velocity of the halo: \sigma_{sat}/V_{vir}=0.9 +/- 0.2. Applied to the Milky Way and M31 this gives V_{vir}^{MW}=109 +/- 22$ km/s and V_{vir}^{M31} = 138 +/- 35 km/s, respectively, substantially lower than the rotation speed of their disk components. The detailed kinematics of simulated satellites and dark matter are also in good agreement. By contrast, the stellar halo of the simulated galaxies is kinematically and spatially distinct from the population of surviving satellites. This is because the survival of a satellite depends on mass and on time of accretion; surviving satellites are biased toward low-mass systems that have been recently accreted by the galaxy. Our results support recent proposals for the origin of the systematic differences between stars in the Galactic halo and in Galactic satellites: the elusive ``building blocks'' of the Milky Way stellar halo were on average more massive, and were accreted (and disrupted) earlier than the population of dwarfs that has survived self-bound until the present.Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures, MNRAS in press. Accepted version with minor changes. Version with high resolution figures available at: http://www.astro.uvic.ca/~lsales/SatPapers/SatPapers.htm

    Cosmic M\'enage \`a Trois: The Origin of Satellite Galaxies On Extreme Orbits

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    We examine the orbits of satellite galaxies identified in a suite of N-body/gasdynamical simulations of the formation of L∗L_* galaxies in a LCDM universe. Most satellites follow conventional orbits; after turning around, they accrete into their host halo and settle on orbits whose apocentric radii are steadily eroded by dynamical friction. However, a number of outliers are also present, we find that ~1/3 of satellites identified at z=0z=0 are on unorthodox orbits, with apocenters that exceed their turnaround radii. This population of satellites on extreme orbits consists typically of the faint member of a satellite pair that has been ejected onto a highly-energetic orbit during its first approach to the primary. Since the concurrent accretion of multiple satellite systems is a defining feature of hierarchical models of galaxy formation, we speculate that this three-body ejection mechanism may be the origin of (i) some of the newly discovered high-speed satellites around M31 (such as Andromeda XIV); (ii) some of the distant fast-receding Local Group members, such as Leo I; and (iii) the oddly isolated dwarf spheroidals Cetus and Tucana in the outskirts of the Local Group. Our results suggest that care must be exercised when using the orbits of the most weakly bound satellites to place constraints on the total mass of the Local Group.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures, MNRAS in press. Accepted version with minor changes. Version with high resolution figures available at: http://www.astro.uvic.ca/~lsales/SatPapers/SatPapers.htm

    Density distribution of particles upon jamming after an avalanche in a 2D silo

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    We present a complete analysis of the density distribution of particles in a two dimensional silo after discharge. Simulations through a pseudo-dynamic algorithm are performed for filling and subsequent discharge of a plane silo. Particles are monosized hard disks deposited in the container and subjected to a tapping process for compaction. Then, a hole of a given size is open at the bottom of the silo and the discharge is triggered. After a clogging at the opening is produced, and equilibrium is restored, the final distribution of the remaining particles at the silo is analyzed by dividing the space into cells with different geometrical arrangements to visualize the way in which the density depression near the opening is propagated throughout the system. The different behavior as a function of the compaction degree is discussed.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figure

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the Central Region of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC1808

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    We present mid infrared (MIR) spectra of the Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxy NGC 1808, obtained with the Gemini's Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph (T-ReCS) at a spatial resolution of 26 pc. The high spatial resolution allowed us to detect bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions at 8.6micron and 11.3micron in the galaxy centre (26 pc) up to a radius of 70 pc from the nucleus. The spectra also present [Ne ii]12.8micron ionic lines, and H2 S(2)12.27micron molecular gas line. We found that the PAHs profiles are similar to Peeters's A class, with the line peak shifted towards the blue. The differences in the PAH line profiles also suggests that the molecules in the region located 26 pc NE of the nucleus are more in the neutral than in the ionised state, while at 26 pc SW of the nucleus, the molecules are mainly in ionised state. After removal of the underlying galaxy contribution, the nuclear spectrum can be represented by a Nenkova's clumpy torus model, indicating that the nucleus of NGC 1808 hosts a dusty toroidal structure with an angular cloud distribution of sigma = 70degree, observer's view angle i = 90degree, and an outer radius of R0 = 0.55 pc. The derived column density along the line of sight is NH = 1.5 x 10^24 cm-2, which is sufficient to block the hard radiation from the active nucleus, and would explain the presence of PAH molecules near to the NGC 1808's active nucleus.Comment: Accepted by MNRAS 2012 December

    Medicina legal en la sociedad contemporĂĄnea

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