168 research outputs found

    Polymer Resonant Waveguide Gratings

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    This chapter deals with the advances in polymeric waveguide gratings for filtering and integrated optics applications. Optical polymer materials are widely used for planar and corrugated micro-optical waveguide grating structures ranging from down a micrometer to several hundred micrometers. Light in a polymeric waveguide is transmitted in discrete modes whose propagation orders depend on incident wavelength, waveguide dimensional parameters, and material properties. Diffracted optical structures are permittivity-modulated microstructures whose micro-relief surface profiles exhibit global/local periodicity. The resonant nature and location of such globally periodic structures (diffraction gratings) excite leaky waveguide modes which couple incident light into reflected/transmitted plane wave diffraction orders. It describes design & analysis, fabrication, and characterization of sub-wavelength polymer grating structures replicated in different polymeric materials (polycarbonate, cyclic olefin copolymer, Ormocomp) by a simple, cost-effective, accurate, and large scale production method. The master stamp (mold) for polymer replication is fabricated with an etchless process with smooth surface profile

    Evaluation of Stroke Awareness and Risk Factor Prevalence Among Students at A Public Sector University in Quetta

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    Background and Objective: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability. Improving stroke knowledge among medical students will help to improve stroke care and its prevention. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors and stroke awareness among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among students at Sardar Bahadur Khan Women\u27s University in Quetta. An eleven-question multiple-choice survey was administered to assess participants\u27 knowledge of stroke-related concepts. The initial study was conducted using descriptive statistics. Additionally, a supplementary screening for common risk factors linked to stroke was included in the study, which involved blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol measures. Data were coded, entered into SPSS, and screened for missing values and outliers. Descriptive analyses were conducted, including frequency tables and graphical representations using pie charts. Results: In our survey of 255 female students, the vast majority (94.9%) correctly classified stroke as a brain disease, whereas a lesser percentage (1.6%) confused it with heart (0.8%), kidney (0.8%), or lung diseases (0.8%) problems. Notably, 74.1% of participants were aware of the precise cause of stroke, but 58.8% identified arm and leg weakness as a symptom. Other symptoms that were recognized by participants included difficulties speaking (25.5%), headache (9.8%), vertigo (2.4%), and chest pain (3.4%). Moreover, 94.9% of participants recognized that stroke is preventable. The most often diagnosed risk factor was hypertension (58.4%), which was followed by high cholesterol (11.8%), diabetes (9.0%), migraine (8.2%), advanced age (7.8%), and smoking (4.7%). Conclusion Our study shows a very good knowledge about stroke among the students at Sardar Bahadur Khan University but our results are biased due to addressing only an educated group of people

    Giant adrenal endothelial cyst associated with acute and chronic morbidity in a young female: a case report

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    Adrenal cysts are rare clinical entities that can present as acute abdomen through rupture and internal hemorrhage as well as chronic symptoms such as gastrointestinal disturbances. A 20-year-old girl presented to our hospital with a 4-years history of abdominal pain and diarrhea. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed a cystic area measuring 10 × 10 cm between the spleen and left kidney. Computed tomography scan showed a large cystic, homogeneous mass measuring 12.8 × 9.5 × 9.4 cm in the left hypochondrium with most likely origin from the left adrenal gland. Limited work up for hormone hypersecretion was negative. The patient was then encountered in the emergency room with an acute abdomen secondary to intracystic hemorrhage. A laparotomy with left adrenalectomy was performed. Final pathology showed a benign adrenal endothelial cyst. Post-operatively, the patient's long standing complaints of diarrhea and abdominal pain completely resolved. Surgical resection appears a safe and reasonable management strategy in a patient with intracystic hemorrhage of adrenal cyst

    Awareness of Nephrolithiasis in Educated Community of Azad Kashmir Pakistan: -

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    Background: Renal stone is an important health problem in the world and is the most common disease in the urinary tract system. It is particularly a common problem in many countries Knowledge and lifestyle attitude of individuals toward renal stone plays a role in delivering optimum management. Primary Study Objective: To determine the public awareness of renal stones causes, symptoms, and management among the population of AJK Pakistan Setting: General population of all the ages was under consideration and data were taken from the general population Participants: This study was conducted on 100 patients from different areas  Methods: The data of this quantitative cross-sectional study was collected from participants of AJK. Participants were given a self-administered questionnaire written in English. August 2020 to September 2020. individuals of all ages are included in this study. Results: Out of hundred participants we determine the awareness among the educational community of AJK. All category of individuals is involved in our research married and unmarried people and students with arts and science subjects. About 13% of males and 87% of females are involved in our research with different ages. Conclusion: This data indicates that the participants are to some degree aware of some aspects of renal stone prevention, symptoms, and modes of diagnosis and treatment. Individuals who experienced renal stones were more knowledgeable in some respects. Further emphasis on public awareness of renal stones is recommended

    Career Development an Imperative of Job Satisfaction and Career Commitment: Empirical Evidence from Pakistani Employees in Banking Sector

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    The idea of strengthening human capital to beginning creativeness, business soul, and advancement through preparing the careers of institutional members using HRM policies and methods to develop different skills, mindsets and expertise with the ultimate aim to provide a range of innovative goods and services is gaining attention. The overall perspective for the research study was to discover the effects and outcomes of profession growth initiatives on companies and employees. The survey is conducted to collect data from the Banking sector in Islamabad and sample selected is of five major private banks. The data is analyzed by using SPSS and Amos to authenticate the model and propositions made by the researcher. Organizations invest resources in profession growth kinds of actions for recruiting, there tends to be less investment in similar kinds of actions for worker retention. This paper examines the link between profession preparing and profession control as antecedents of profession growth and job fulfillment, and profession dedication as its outcome. There is a significant link between the factors of profession preparing and profession control, and profession growth, and in turn, with job fulfillment and profession dedication. The paper converses about the significances of these conclusions for career development

    Effect of time pressure and human judgment on decision making in three public sector organizations of Pakistan

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    This study attempts to widen the effect of time pressure and human judgment on decision making. A census of three organizations named Project Management Organization (PMO), Accountant General Pakistan Revenues (AGPR) and Controller General of Accountant (CGA) was occupied. To demeanor this study a questionnaire tagged Decision Making, Time Pressure and Human Judgment was used for the assortment of data. The questionnaire was predominantly designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. The total number of observations was eighty two and the Arithmetic Mean Score of decision making, time pressure and human judgment were 2.532, 2.527 and 2.395 respectively. The significance level of the model was 0.000 which illustrates maximum significant level. As p-value is less than .05 so it can be assumed that the variables elected for the study are decidedly significant

    Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary melanoma of the colon

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the management of primary colonic melanoma remains nebulous due to the limited number of reports in literature.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A comprehensive search of Medline, Cochrane and Highwire was performed using the following keywords: 'melanoma', 'malignant melanoma', 'primary melanoma', 'colon', 'gastrointestinal tract', 'alimentary tract', 'digestive tract', and 'large bowel'. All patients with primary melanoma localized to the colon were included in the review. Patients with metastatic melanomas to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and primary melanomas localized to the GI tract in anatomic locations other than colon were excluded.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>There have been only 12 reported cases of primary melanoma of the colon to date. The average age of patients on presentation was 60.4 years without any significant gender predilection. Right colon (33%) and cecum (33%) were the most common sites for the occurrence of primary colonic melanoma while abdominal pain (58%) and weight loss (50%) were the most common presenting complaints. Colonoscopy is the most reliable diagnostic investigation and offers the additional advantage of obtaining tissue for diagnosis. S-100 and HMB-45 are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this malignancy. For primary colonic melanomas that have not metastasized to any distant parts of the body, surgical resection with wide margins appears to be the treatment of choice. Although the management was individualized in every case, most of the authors preferred traditional hemicolectomy as the favored surgical approach. Chemotherapeutic agents including interferons, cytokines, biological agents and radiation therapy for brain metastases have been reported as adjuvant and palliative options while considering malignant melanomas in general. The average recurrence-free interval was 2.59 years. Nine of the 12 reports documented follow-up in their patients. Two of these 9 (22.2%) patients died.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Primary melanoma of the colon is a rare clinical entity. Whenever a seemingly primary melanoma is detected in an atypical location such as the colon, it is prudent to conduct a thorough clinical investigation to consider the possibility of metastatic disease. Further studies are needed to document the long term follow-up, survival advantage and safety of the management approaches employed in patients with primary colonic melanoma. Based on current data, surgical resection appears to be appropriate management for primary colonic melanomas; unless the disease has metastasized to distant sites where surgery may have a limited palliative role.</p

    WHY DO ENTREPRENEURS LEAVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP? EXPLORATORY STUDY FROM LAHORE, PAKISTAN

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    The purpose of this study was to find out the factors that are responsible for entrepreneurs to quit entrepreneurship and join the job industry. This qualitative study was designed to fulfill the objectives via interviewing ex-entrepreneurs and getting first-hand information from business owners themselves who had faced the problem in their business tenure. Interviewing the respondents brought out a number of factors that had ultimately forced them to wind up their businesses. These factors were then carved out broadly categorized as internal or external factors which led to either managerial or financial reasons. Conducting this research was a tedious task as people are not willing to share their previous or unpleasant memories furthermore.&nbsp; They were hesitant to share a part of their personal life experience. Due to limited resources and time the research was conducted in the city of Lahore which and therefore limited in its scope. Nevertheless, this study has produced credible information which can be useful for future entrepreneurs. Keywords: Business failure; Small business; Failure factors https://doi.org/10.56249/ijbr.03.01.26&nbsp

    Pakistani Physicians: Exploring the Paradox of Public Service Motivation and User Orientation

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    The desire to support single beneficiary of public services (user orientation) has divergence with desire to support society at large, both motivations compete in same dimensional space. Extra ordinary usage of broad spectrum antibiotics creates negative externalities for society as large because excessive use of antibiotics creates resistance among bacteria that become hard and expensive to cure. There exists large gap to comprehend difference between discrete choices of both motivations of public service. The antibiotics prescriptions behavior of Pakistani general physicians (Doctors) has been analyzed in this study to investigate the association between Public Service Motivation and user orientation with this behavior. 250 Pakistani general practitioners were chosen in both private and public sector to investigate the PSM relationship with user orientation. The findings indicate that there is different association between Public Service Motivation and user orientation regarding prescription behavior of the general physicians (Doctors). This entails that it is necessary to investigate this behavior difference to know whether the public service provider is fascinated towards helping single beneficiary or be concerned more about society
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