175 research outputs found

    Effects of copper, zinc and selenium status on performance and health in commercial dairy and beef herds: retrospective study

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    A retrospective study using analysis of plasma copper and zinc, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase from 2 080 dairy and beef cow herds was conducted to evaluate the relationship between trace-element status and production, reproduction and health in cows and their calves. Classification of the herd status as deficient, marginal, low-adequate or high-adequate was based on the lower tercile of individual values. Odds ratios for each disorder in herds were calculated by multivariable stepwise logistic regression. Inadequate copper status was not associated with adult disorders, but was an important risk factor for poor calf performance or health. Selenium deficient status was associated with most studied disorders in cows, and both deficient and marginal herd status were strongly associated with poor health of calves, particularly with increased risks of myopathy and infectious diseases. Zinc insufficiency was strongly associated with low milk production and impaired locomotion in dairy herds, and was also associated with diarrhoea and poor growth in calves. Because a low-adequate status increased the risk of many disorders in adults and calves, we propose to classify herds as deficient and marginal when the lower terciles of plasma zinc concentration are below 12 and between 12 and 14 lmol/l respectively

    The Bone Regenerative Capacity of Canine Mesenchymal Stem Cells is Regulated by Site-Specific Multilineage Differentiation

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    Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer a promising therapy in dentistry because of their multipotent properties. Selecting donor MSCs is crucial because Beagle dogs (canines) commonly used in preclinical studies have shown variable outcomes, and it is unclear whether canine MSCs (cMSCs) are skeletal site specific. This study tested whether jaw and long bone cMSCs have disparate in vitro and in vivo multilineage differentiation capabilities. Study Design Primary cMSCs were isolated from the mandible (M-cMSCs) and femur (F-cMSCs) of four healthy Beagle dogs. The femur served as the non-oral control. Clonogenic and proliferative abilities were assessed. In vitro osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neural multilineage differentiation were correlated with in vivo bone regeneration and potential for clinical applications. Results M-cMSCs displayed two-fold increase in clonogenic and proliferative capacities relative to F-cMSCs (P = .006). M-cMSCs in vitro osteogenesis based on alkaline phosphatase (P = .04), bone sialoprotein (P = .05), and osteocalcin (P = .03), as well as adipogenesis (P = .007) and chondrogenesis (P = .009), were relatively higher and correlated with enhanced M-cMSC bone regenerative capacity. Neural expression markers, nestin and βIII-tubulin, were not significantly different. Conclusions The enhanced differentiation and bone regenerative capacity of mandible MSCs may make them favorable donor graft materials for site-specific jaw bone regeneration

    Canine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Bone Regenerative Capacity is Regulated by Site-Specific Multi-Lineage Differentiation

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    Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising therapies in dentistry due to their multipotent properties. Selecting donor MSCs is crucial because beagle dogs (canines) commonly used in pre-clinical studies have shown variable outcomes and it is unclear whether canine MSCs (cMSCs) are skeletal site-specific. This study tested whether jaw and long bone cMSCs have disparate in vitro and in vivo multilineage differentiation capabilities. Study Design Primary cMSCs were isolated from mandible (M-cMSCs) and femur (F-cMSCs) of four healthy Beagle dogs. Femur served as non-oral control. Clonogenic and proliferative abilities were assessed. In vitroosteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and neural multilineage differentiation were correlated with in vivobone regeneration and potential for clinical applications. Results M-cMSCs displayed two-fold increase in clonogenic and proliferative capacities relative to F-cMSCs (p =0.006). M-cMSCs in vitro osteogenesis based on alkaline phosphatase (p =0.04), bone sialoprotein (p =0.05), and osteocalcin (p =0.03), as well as adipogenesis (p =0.007), and chondrogenesis (p =0.009) were relatively higher and correlated with enhanced M-cMSC bone regenerative capacity. Neural expression markers, nestin and βIII-tubulin were not significantly different. Conclusions The enhanced differentiation and bone regenerative capacity of mandible MSCs may make them favorable donor graft materials for site-specific jaw bone regeneration

    Mode-coupling and nonlinear Landau damping effects in auroral Farley-Buneman turbulence

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    The fundamental problem of Farley-Buneman turbulence in the auroral EE-region has been discussed and debated extensively in the past two decades. In the present paper we intend to clarify the different steps that the auroral EE-region plasma has to undergo before reaching a steady state. The mode-coupling calculation, for Farley-Buneman turbulence, is developed in order to place it in perspective and to estimate its magnitude relative to the anomalous effects which arise through the nonlinear wave-particle interaction. This nonlinear effect, known as nonlinear ``Landau damping'' is due to the coupling of waves which produces other waves which in turn lose energy to the bulk of the particles by Landau damping. This leads to a decay of the wave energy and consequently a heating of the plasma. An equation governing the evolution of the field spectrum is derived and a physical interpration for each of its terms is provided

    Sparse Representation of Brain Aging: Extracting Covariance Patterns from Structural MRI

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    An enhanced understanding of how normal aging alters brain structure is urgently needed for the early diagnosis and treatment of age-related mental diseases. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a reliable technique used to detect age-related changes in the human brain. Currently, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) enables the exploration of subtle and distributed changes of data obtained from structural MRI images. In this study, a new MVPA approach based on sparse representation has been employed to investigate the anatomical covariance patterns of normal aging. Two groups of participants (group 1∶290 participants; group 2∶56 participants) were evaluated in this study. These two groups were scanned with two 1.5 T MRI machines. In the first group, we obtained the discriminative patterns using a t-test filter and sparse representation step. We were able to distinguish the young from old cohort with a very high accuracy using only a few voxels of the discriminative patterns (group 1∶98.4%; group 2∶96.4%). The experimental results showed that the selected voxels may be categorized into two components according to the two steps in the proposed method. The first component focuses on the precentral and postcentral gyri, and the caudate nucleus, which play an important role in sensorimotor tasks. The strongest volume reduction with age was observed in these clusters. The second component is mainly distributed over the cerebellum, thalamus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These regions are not only critical nodes of the sensorimotor circuitry but also the cognitive circuitry although their volume shows a relative resilience against aging. Considering the voxels selection procedure, we suggest that the aging of the sensorimotor and cognitive brain regions identified in this study has a covarying relationship with each other

    Differential Development of Human Brain White Matter Tracts

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    Neuroscience is increasingly focusing on developmental factors related to human structural and functional connectivity. Unfortunately, to date, diffusion-based imaging approaches have only contributed modestly to these broad objectives, despite the promise of diffusion-based tractography. Here, we report a novel data-driven approach to detect similarities and differences among white matter tracts with respect to their developmental trajectories, using 64-direction diffusion tensor imaging. Specifically, using a cross-sectional sample comprising 144 healthy individuals (7 to 48 years old), we applied k-means cluster analysis to separate white matter voxels based on their age-related trajectories of fractional anisotropy. Optimal solutions included 5-, 9- and 14-clusters. Our results recapitulate well-established tracts (e.g., internal and external capsule, optic radiations, corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, cerebral peduncles) and subdivisions within tracts (e.g., corpus callosum, internal capsule). For all but one tract identified, age-related trajectories were curvilinear (i.e., inverted ‘U-shape’), with age-related increases during childhood and adolescence followed by decreases in middle adulthood. Identification of peaks in the trajectories suggests that age-related losses in fractional anisotropy occur as early as 23 years of age, with mean onset at 30 years of age. Our findings demonstrate that data-driven analytic techniques may be fruitfully applied to extant diffusion tensor imaging datasets in normative and neuropsychiatric samples

    The Role of Whole Blood Impedance Aggregometry and Its Utilisation in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis in Acute Critical Illness

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    Objective: To assess the prognostic and diagnostic value of whole blood impedance aggregometry in patients with sepsis and SIRS and to compare with whole blood parameters (platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count). Methods: We performed an observational, prospective study in the acute setting. Platelet function was determined using whole blood impedance aggregometry (multiplate) on admission to the Emergency Department or Intensive Care Unit and at 6 and 24 hours post admission. Platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count were also determined. Results: 106 adult patients that met SIRS and sepsis criteria were included. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock when compared to SIRS/uncomplicated sepsis (ADP: 90.7±37.6 vs 61.4±40.6; p<0.001, Arachadonic Acid 99.9±48.3 vs 66.3±50.2; p = 0.001, Collagen 102.6±33.0 vs 79.1±38.8; p = 0.001; SD ± mean)). Furthermore platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in the 28 day mortality group when compared with the survival group (Arachadonic Acid 58.8±47.7 vs 91.1±50.9; p<0.05, Collagen 36.6±36.6 vs 98.0±35.1; p = 0.001; SD ± mean)). However haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelet count were more effective at distinguishing between subgroups and were equally effective indicators of prognosis. Significant positive correlations were observed between whole blood impedance aggregometry and platelet count (ADP 0.588 p<0.0001, Arachadonic Acid 0.611 p<0.0001, Collagen 0.599 p<0.0001 (Pearson correlation)). Conclusions: Reduced platelet aggregometry responses were not only significantly associated with morbidity and mortality in sepsis and SIRS patients, but also correlated with the different pathological groups. Whole blood aggregometry significantly correlated with platelet count, however, when we adjust for the different groups we investigated, the effect of platelet count appears to be non-significant

    Asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in the white matter in the healthy elderly: a tract-based study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes have been reported for the human brain. Meanwhile it was still unclear the presence of the asymmetry or sex differences in the human brain occurred whether as a normal development or as consequences of any pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes by using a tract-based analysis in the nerve bundles.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>40 healthy elderly subjects underwent magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, and we calculated fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values along the major white matter bundles.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We identified hemispherical asymmetry in the ADC values for the cingulate fasciculus in the total subject set and in males, and a sex difference in the FA values for the right uncinate fasciculus. For age-related changes, we demonstrated a significant increase in ADC values with advancing age in the right cingulum, left temporal white matter, and a significant decrease in FA values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>In this study, we found hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in particular regions of the white matter in the healthy elderly. Our results suggest considering these differences can be important in imaging studies.</p

    Detection of Epileptogenic Cortical Malformations with Surface-Based MRI Morphometry

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    Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the detection of structural abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. However, many focal abnormalities remain undetected in routine visual inspection. Here we use an automated, surface-based method for quantifying morphometric features related to epileptogenic cortical malformations to detect abnormal cortical thickness and blurred gray-white matter boundaries. Using MRI morphometry at 3T with surface-based spherical averaging techniques that precisely align anatomical structures between individual brains, we compared single patients with known lesions to a large normal control group to detect clusters of abnormal cortical thickness, gray-white matter contrast, local gyrification, sulcal depth, jacobian distance and curvature. To assess the effects of threshold and smoothing on detection sensitivity and specificity, we systematically varied these parameters with different thresholds and smoothing levels. To test the effectiveness of the technique to detect lesions of epileptogenic character, we compared the detected structural abnormalities to expert-tracings, intracranial EEG, pathology and surgical outcome in a homogeneous patient sample. With optimal parameters and by combining thickness and GWC, the surface-based detection method identified 92% of cortical lesions (sensitivity) with few false positives (96% specificity), successfully discriminating patients from controls 94% of the time. The detected structural abnormalities were related to the seizure onset zones, abnormal histology and positive outcome in all surgical patients. However, the method failed to adequately describe lesion extent in most cases. Automated surface-based MRI morphometry, if used with optimized parameters, may be a valuable additional clinical tool to improve the detection of subtle or previously occult malformations and therefore could improve identification of patients with intractable focal epilepsy who may benefit from surgery
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