155 research outputs found

    Downward trends in violence among adolescents in the United States: Evidence from the NSDUH 2002-2014

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    OBJECTIVE: To examine trends and correlates of fighting and violence among youth from the nation's three largest racial/ethnic groups in the US. METHODS: A population-based study (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014) of youth ages 12-17 (n = 209,393) provided prevalence estimates for fighting, group fighting, and attacks with the intent to harm by race/ethnicity. RESULTS The prevalence of youth fighting and violence decreased significantly for all racial/ethnic groups, dropping from a high of 33.6% in 2003 to a low of 23.7% in 2014, reflecting a 29% decrease in the relative proportion of young people involved in these behaviors. However, we also see a clear severity gradient in which year-by-year point estimates for fighting and violence are consistently highest among African-American youth followed by Hispanic and then non-Hispanic white youth. CONCLUSIONS Among youth in general and across racial/ethnic subgroups, fighting and violence are on the decline but with a stable pattern of disparities in youth involvement in these behaviors

    Behavioral risk profiles of homeschooled adolescents in the United States: a nationally representative examination of substance use related outcomes

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    BACKGROUND: The homeschool population continues to grow in size and now accounts for 3.4% of all students in the United States. OBJECTIVE: Given the heterogeneous nature of the population, this study examines the relationship between different types of homeschoolers and a number of substance use related outcomes. METHODS: To conduct this study, we used pooled data (2002–2013) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Respondents aged 12–17 who reported they had been homeschooled at any time during the previous 12 months were classified as homeschoolers (N = 1,321). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify latent subgroups of homeschoolers and multinomial regression was executed to assess the relationship between the subgroups and perceived substance use risk, availability, and past 12-month use. RESULTS: The LPA yielded four subgroups, which were summarized as (1) highly religious and engaged, (2) limited parental monitoring, (3) high parental warmth and support, and (4) secular permissive. Of these, the highly religious and engaged subgroup was the least likely to report using substances. CONCLUSION: The results underscore the variation that exists among homeschoolers and the importance of examining the relationship between different types of homeschoolers and outcomes of interest

    Self-efficacy, religiosity, and crime: profiles of African American youth in urban housing communities

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    Youth reporting independently elevated levels of religiosity and self-efficacy tend to abstain from externalizing behavior. However, little is known about the ways in which religiosity and self-efficacy interrelate to impact youth externalizing. Drawing from a sample of African American youth from public housing communities (N = 236), we use latent profile analysis to identify subtypes of youth based on self-reported religiosity and self-efficacy and, in turn, examine links with crime. Compared to youth in other subgroups, those classified as both highly religious and highly self-efficacious reported less involvement in minor and severe delinquency, but not violence.R25 DA030310 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; R25 DA030310 - National Institutes of Healt

    Handgun carrying among white youth increasing in the United States: new evidence from the national survey on drug use and health 2002–2013

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    The objective of the present study was to examine trends and correlates of handgun carrying among adolescents ages 12–17 in the United States. Data was derived from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) involving non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic respondents ages 12–17 (n = 197,313) and spanning the years 2002–2013. Logistic regression was used to examine significance of trend year and correlates of previous 12-month handgun carrying. The overall self-reported prevalence of handgun carrying was 3.4%. The prevalence of handgun carrying during 2004–2005 was significantly higher for African-Americans (4.39%) compared to non-Hispanic Whites (3.03%). However, by 2012–2013, non-Hispanic Whites (4.08%) completely diverged and reported carrying handguns significantly more than both African-American (2.96%) and Hispanic (2.82%) youth. Male gender and a number of externalizing behaviors were significant correlates of handgun carrying; however, we also found evidence of differential correlates with regard to such factors as drug selling, parental affirmation, and income by race/ethnicity. To our knowledge, this is the largest study of handgun carrying among youth in the United States. Findings indicate that although at historically low levels handgun carrying is on the rise but only among non-Hispanic Whites. Differential correlates among racial/ethnic groups suggest prevention programming and policies may need modifications depending on group and geographic locale targeted.R25 DA030310 - National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Healt

    Military service and crime: new evidence

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    BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of military personnel are involved in high-risk and antisocial behaviors that place them at jeopardy for criminal justice system involvement. However, prior research on military service and crime has disproportionately focused on veterans from the Vietnam War era (1955–1975), and has tended to focus on either current or former military members. METHODS: This study employed data from a population-based study (i.e., National Study on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH] between 2002 and 2014). It systematically examines the prevalence of self-reported antisocial behaviors, criminal justice system involvement, and substance abuse among the US civilian population and military service members, including reservists (n = 2206) and those who reported having been separated or retired from military service (n = 20,551). These factors are further examined across the developmental spectrum of adulthood (ages 18–34, 35–49, and 50–64). RESULTS: Results showed that military members were more prone to lifetime arrests and overall substance misuse. However, additional findings emerged suggesting that, while the military population overall seems to be positively associated with higher criminal activity than that found in the civilian population, these findings were based on a specific subgroup of the veteran population. This subgroup is comprised of individuals who likely did not fit in with the military culture and were discharged from the military early in their careers. CONCLUSION: Additional research on identifying this subgroup of military members is encouraged to better concentrate on prevention and treatment measures

    Public or private religiosity: which Is protective for adolescent substance use and by what pathways?

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    While it is well understood that adolescent religiosity is associated with the use and abuse of licit and illicit substances, few studies have revealed the pathways through which religiosity buffers youth against involvement in such behavior. The aim of this study is to examine the complexity of the relationships between religiosity, sensation seeking, injunctive norms, and adolescent substance use. Using a national sample of adolescents (N = 18,614), negative binomial regression and path analysis were used to examine the various components of the relationship between religiosity and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Results indicate that private religiosity moderates the relationship between key risk factors and substance use. Public and private religiosity were associated with tolerant injunctive substance use norms which, in turn, were associated with substance use. Implications for research and theory related to religiosity and adolescent substance use are discussed

    Handgun carrying among youth in the United States

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    Despite a wealth of research finding that adolescents who carry handguns are involved in risky behaviors, there has been little exploration into the heterogeneity of this behavior. Using a pooled sample of 12- to 17-year-olds from the National Study on Drug Use and Health who report past-year handgun carrying (N = 7,872), this study identified four subgroups of handgun carriers: low risk (n = 3,831; 47.93%), alcohol and marijuana users (n = 1,591; 20.16%), fighters (n = 1,430; 19.40%), and severe externalizers (n = 1,020, 12.51%). These subgroups differed on demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics. Findings are discussed in light of prevention and focused deterrence

    Attacks intended to seriously harm and co-occurring drug use among youth in the United States

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    BACKGROUND: While it is known that substance use and violence co-occur, less is understood in terms of how this relationship might vary based on the degree of youth involvement in violence. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the prevalence and degree that substance use disorders (SUD) and related intrapersonal and contextual factors were associated with violent attacks. METHOD: Repeated cross-sectional data from a population-based study (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) of youth ages 12–17 (n = 216,852) in the United States between 2002 and 2013 were pooled to increase the analytic sample size. Survey multinomial regression was used to examine psychosocial and substance use differences between youth reporting episodic (1–2 times, n = 13,091; 5.84%) and repeated violent attacks (3+ times, n = 1,819; 0.83%) in contrast with youth reporting no attacks. Additional analyses examined the association of sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and contextual factors with SUD among youth reporting violent attacks. RESULTS: The prevalence of SUD among youth with no attacks was 6% compared to 22% among episodic and 36% among repeatedly violent youth. Violence-involved youth were substantially more likely to experience elevated sensation-seeking, easy drug access, and recent drug offers and less likely to benefit from religiosity and protective substance use beliefs. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the various gradations of violence among youth in understanding the relationship between substance use and violence, and shed light on the intrapersonal and contextual factors that can help identify violent youth at greatest risk for substance use problems
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