25 research outputs found

    Post-conflict conservation or reconstruction: analysis, criteria, values of the recent Syrian cultural heritage

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    Three years of conflict in Syria has affected the cultural heritage severely and threatened social and symbolic values. This paper illustrates firstly the real condition of the city of Aleppo, through presenting some cases of high cultural value buildings damaged by the conflict, even some were totally collapsed, which represent an important bond of Aleppo citizens similar to the idea of ‚ÄúIstanza Psicologica‚ÄĚ theorized by Roberto Pane. Secondly, the research aims to analyze the criteria of ‚Äúsecond-day‚ÄĚ intervention (conservation, restoration, enhancement and eventual reconstruction) on this damaged heritage, by investigating the cultural significant values of these buildings damaged or completely destroyed. Finally, the paper concludes with a few suggestions about the optimum intervention of different case studies represents the values mentioned before. To sum up, the research aims to involve the international debate about conservation and restoration with a critical situation of cultural heritage in crisis

    Syria: From Destruction to Reconstruction. Use of War Demolition Materials in Rural Housing ConstructńĪon in Syria

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    Seven years of destructive war in Syria caused huge damage in different sectors, the amount of waste materials came out of destruction clearly created a big problem to manage and solve in the post-war reconstruction era. This paper aims to suggest and investigate the future possibilities of using the destruction materials in housing building and reconstructing for internally displaced people and refugees willing to return to Syria. The need of architectural innovative solutions, force a new mentality in construction materials science, reconstruction management and urban planning; since the project is suggesting to build housing modules in rural areas of northern Syria using materials from the rubble. This will achieve different goals, recycling the materials, because construction materials are rare and expensive, and manage cities reconstruction effectively, giving space to community healing. An alternative approach proposed for a retroactive interaction with other disciplines for a holistic vision solution of the post war reconstruction in Syria

    Cultural Influence on Evaluation System of Social Sustainability in Turkish Housing Projects

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    Architects have always been keen on providing efficient and ideal housing while considering multiple factors because it is one of the essential needs of human beings. Sustainability has become a core topic in housing design and several studies have tried to define the important factors that should be considered in order to realize sustainable design. Lately, architects and urban planners managed to take steps forward towards social sustainability in design to define the socio-natural relationship allowing lasting environmental quality. Many studies in the US and Europe were conducted to analyze this complex mission. Since different communities have developed different cultures, traditions, and attitudes dealing with housing projects, this paper aims to investigate the different factors and criteria to analyze and evaluate social sustainability in housing projects for culturally different societies. This investigation provides an understanding of the diverse needs of those different communities in terms of socially sustainable design. Different case studies from similar cultures in Turkey and Syria have been analyzed towards the establishment of clear and solid scientific evaluation system suitable for those communities in order to discuss the factors needed to achieve social sustainability of housing on an architectural and urban scale

    Adolescent transport and unintentional injuries: a systematic analysis using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background: Globally, transport and unintentional injuries persist as leading preventable causes of mortality and morbidity for adolescents. We sought to report comprehensive trends in injury-related mortality and morbidity for adolescents aged 10‚Äď24 years during the past three decades. Methods: Using the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2019 Study, we analysed mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributed to transport and unintentional injuries for adolescents in 204 countries. Burden is reported in absolute numbers and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population by sex, age group (10‚Äď14, 15‚Äď19, and 20‚Äď24 years), and sociodemographic index (SDI) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We report percentage changes in deaths and DALYs between 1990 and 2019. Findings: In 2019, 369 061 deaths (of which 214 337 [58%] were transport related) and 31¬∑1 million DALYs (of which 16¬∑2 million [52%] were transport related) among adolescents aged 10‚Äď24 years were caused by transport and unintentional injuries combined. If compared with other causes, transport and unintentional injuries combined accounted for 25% of deaths and 14% of DALYs in 2019, and showed little improvement from 1990 when such injuries accounted for 26% of adolescent deaths and 17% of adolescent DALYs. Throughout adolescence, transport and unintentional injury fatality rates increased by age group. The unintentional injury burden was higher among males than females for all injury types, except for injuries related to fire, heat, and hot substances, or to adverse effects of medical treatment. From 1990 to 2019, global mortality rates declined by 34¬∑4% (from 17¬∑5 to 11¬∑5 per 100 000) for transport injuries, and by 47¬∑7% (from 15¬∑9 to 8¬∑3 per 100 000) for unintentional injuries. However, in low-SDI nations the absolute number of deaths increased (by 80¬∑5% to 42 774 for transport injuries and by 39¬∑4% to 31 961 for unintentional injuries). In the high-SDI quintile in 2010‚Äď19, the rate per 100 000 of transport injury DALYs was reduced by 16¬∑7%, from 838 in 2010 to 699 in 2019. This was a substantially slower pace of reduction compared with the 48¬∑5% reduction between 1990 and 2010, from 1626 per 100 000 in 1990 to 838 per 100 000 in 2010. Between 2010 and 2019, the rate of unintentional injury DALYs per 100 000 also remained largely unchanged in high-SDI countries (555 in 2010 vs 554 in 2019; 0¬∑2% reduction). The number and rate of adolescent deaths and DALYs owing to environmental heat and cold exposure increased for the high-SDI quintile during 2010‚Äď19. Interpretation: As other causes of mortality are addressed, inadequate progress in reducing transport and unintentional injury mortality as a proportion of adolescent deaths becomes apparent. The relative shift in the burden of injury from high-SDI countries to low and low‚Äďmiddle-SDI countries necessitates focused action, including global donor, government, and industry investment in injury prevention. The persisting burden of DALYs related to transport and unintentional injuries indicates a need to prioritise innovative measures for the primary prevention of adolescent injury. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990‚Äď2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods: GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990‚Äď2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0‚Äď9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10‚Äď24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10‚Äď24 years were also in the top ten in the 25‚Äď49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50‚Äď74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation: As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and developm nt investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ¬© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 licens

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.Peer reviewe

    Global, regional, and national mortality among young people aged 10-24 years, 1950-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019