3,435 research outputs found

    Elastic Moduli and Vibrational Modes in Jammed Particulate Packings

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    When we elastically impose a homogeneous, affine deformation on amorphous solids, they also undergo an inhomogeneous, non-affine deformation, which can have a crucial impact on the overall elastic response. To correctly understand the elastic modulus MM, it is therefore necessary to take into account not only the affine modulus MAM_A, but also the non-affine modulus MNM_N that arises from the non-affine deformation. In the present work, we study the bulk (M=KM=K) and shear (M=GM=G) moduli in static jammed particulate packings over a range of packing fractions φ\varphi. One novelty of this work is to elucidate the contribution of each vibrational mode to the non-affine MNM_N through a modal decomposition of the displacement and force fields. In the vicinity of the (un)jamming transition, φc\varphi_{c}, the vibrational density of states, g(ω)g(\omega), shows a plateau in the intermediate frequency regime above a characteristic frequency ω\omega^\ast. We illustrate that this unusual feature apparent in g(ω)g(\omega) is reflected in the behavior of MNM_N: As φφc\varphi \rightarrow \varphi_c, where ω0\omega^\ast \rightarrow 0, those modes for ω<ω\omega < \omega^\ast contribute less and less, while contributions from those for ω>ω\omega > \omega^\ast approach a constant value which results in MNM_N to approach a critical value MNcM_{Nc}, as MNMNcωM_N-M_{Nc} \sim \omega^\ast. At φc\varphi_c itself, the bulk modulus attains a finite value Kc=KAcKNc>0K_c=K_{Ac}-K_{Nc} > 0, such that KNcK_{Nc} has a value that remains below KAcK_{Ac}. In contrast, for the critical shear modulus GcG_c, GNcG_{Nc} and GAcG_{Ac} approach the same value so that the total value becomes exactly zero, Gc=GAcGNc=0G_c = G_{Ac}-G_{Nc} =0. We explore what features of the configurational and vibrational properties cause such the distinction between KK and GG, allowing us to validate analytical expressions for their critical values.Comment: 23 pages, 13 figure

    Enhancement of the spin pumping efficiency by spin-wave mode selection

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    The spin pumping efficiency of lateral standing spin wave modes in a rectangular YIG/Pt sample has been investigated by means of the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE). The standing spin waves drive spin pumping, the generation of spin currents from magnetization precession, into the Pt layer which is converted into a detectable voltage due to the ISHE. We discovered that the spin pumping efficiency is significantly higher for lateral standing surface spin waves rather than for volume spin wave modes. The results suggest that the use of higher-mode surface spin waves allows for the fabrication of an efficient spin-current injector

    Universal scaling for the spin-electricity conversion on surface states of topological insulators

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    We have investigated spin-electricity conversion on surface states of bulk-insulating topological insulator (TI) materials using a spin pumping technique. The sample structure is Ni-Fe|Cu|TI trilayers, in which magnetic proximity effects on the TI surfaces are negligibly small owing to the inserted Cu layer. Voltage signals produced by the spin-electricity conversion are clearly observed, and enhanced with decreasing temperature in line with the dominated surface transport at lower temperatures. The efficiency of the spin-electricity conversion is greater for TI samples with higher resistivity of bulk states and longer mean free path of surface states, consistent with the surface spin-electricity conversion

    Effects of a Supermassive Black Hole Binary on a Nuclear Gas Disk

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    We study influence of a galactic central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary on gas dynamics and star formation activity in a nuclear gas disk by making three-dimensional Tree+SPH simulations. Due to orbital motions of SMBHs, there are various resonances between gas motion and the SMBH binary motion. We have shown that these resonances create some characteristic structures of gas in the nuclear gas disk, for examples, gas elongated or filament structures, formation of gaseous spiral arms, and small gas disks around SMBHs. In these gaseous dense regions, active star formations are induced. As the result, many star burst regions are formed in the nuclear region.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Ap