871 research outputs found

    Prioritizing Metro Service Quality Attributes to Enhance Commuter Experience: TOPSIS Ranking and Importance Satisfaction Analysis methods

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    A metro infrastructure, facility and service quality investigation based on commuter perception was conducted in this study to explore and prioritize the key attributes influencing overall metro service quality in typical Indian context. Based on the critical state of the art review, 12 key attributes were identified and they were accommodated in a paper based questionnaire to elicit commuter perception of importance and satisfaction by using a five point Likert scale. Subsequently, TOPSIS, an extensively adopted Multi attribute decision making technique, was carried out to rank the attributes with respect to perceived importance and satisfaction. Then an importance satisfaction analysis (ISA) was conducted to further classify the attributes in four quadrants based on their perceived degree of importance and satisfaction using an ISA matrix. Finally, the derived results from the TOPSIS and ISA analysis were combined and compared to obtain a prioritized set of attributes requiring intervention for better metro service quality in Indian context. Results of this study clearly indicated the relative strengths and weaknesses of each metro service/infrastructure specific attribute and presented the probable role of metro authorities for each of them. Attributes such as, Metro fare, Connection to metro and Metro frequency were observed to be the most important but were not performing satisfactorily, indicating that more emphasis is required on these attributes for improving the overall quality of travel by metro rail in Indian context. Hence, this methodology would be instrumental to detect a set of priority areas of improvement in metro rail service, which could contribute to retain the existing commuters and attract new metro users

    Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (SN--DREAMS III): Study design and research methodology

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>To describe the methodology of the Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III, an ongoing epidemiological study to estimate the prevalence of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy in rural population of Kanchipuram and Thiravallur districts of Tamil Nadu, India and to elucidate the clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and genetic risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in this rural population.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III will be a mobile van based epidemiological study; 11,760 participants aged ≥ 40 years will be recruited from the study areas. Eligible subjects will undergo blood sugar estimation to diagnose Diabetes. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test will be done to conform diabetes. All subjects with diabetes will undergo complete information of knowledge, aptitude and practice of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, Diet questionnaire, demographic data, socioeconomic status, physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and risk of sleep apnoea. A detailed medical and ocular history, a comprehensive eye examination including refraction, slit lamp biomicroscopy examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, digital stereo fundus photography and ultrasound of eye will be done in the mobile van. Blood will be collected for biochemical investigations including blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, urea and creatinine, genetic study. Urine will be collected for microalbuminuria. All fundus photographs will be graded at base hospital. Participants who need treatment will be sent to the base hospital. A computerized database is created for the records.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The study is expected to provide an estimate of the prevalence of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy and also a better understanding of the genetic, anthropometric and socio-economic risk factors associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in a Rural South Indian population.</p

    A novel method for localising a randomly distributed wireless sensor network

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    Wireless sensor networks are dependent on sending and receiving signals; the system will not be capable of functioning if communication between sensors is not established. Localisation is one of the most important functions in this technology to localise nodes, events or the data source. In this study, we present a new method for outdoor randomly distributed nodes with no need for any excess devices, such as GPS devices or directional anten- nas or ultrasonic sensors. The method is based on using only the simple node component to provide the node and event position and has the ability to adapt mobility and scalability without affecting network functionality. All of the results are based on an ideal environment

    Working Group Report: Heavy-Ion Physics and Quark-Gluon Plasma

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    This is the report of Heavy Ion Physics and Quark-Gluon Plasma at WHEPP-09 which was part of Working Group-4. Discussion and work on some aspects of Quark-Gluon Plasma believed to have created in heavy-ion collisions and in early universe are reported.Comment: 20 pages, 6 eps figures, Heavy-ion physics and QGP activity report in "IX Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-09)" held in Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India, during January 3-14, 2006. To be published in PRAMANA - Journal of Physics (Indian Academy of Science

    Role of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes in Capsaicin Mediated Oxidative Stress Leading to Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

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    We evaluated the mechanism of capsaicin-mediated ROS generation in pancreatic cancer cells. The generation of ROS was about 4–6 fold more as compared to control and as early as 1 h after capsaicin treatment in BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cells but not in normal HPDE-6 cells. The generation of ROS was inhibited by catalase and EUK-134. To delineate the mechanism of ROS generation, enzymatic activities of mitochondrial complex-I and complex-III were determined in the pure mitochondria. Our results shows that capsaicin inhibits about 2.5–9% and 5–20% of complex-I activity and 8–75% of complex-III activity in BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cells respectively, which was attenuable by SOD, catalase and EUK-134. On the other hand, capsaicin treatment failed to inhibit complex-I or complex-III activities in normal HPDE-6 cells. The ATP levels were drastically suppressed by capsaicin treatment in both BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cells and attenuated by catalase or EUK-134. Oxidation of mitochondria-specific cardiolipin was substantially higher in capsaicin treated cells. BxPC-3 derived ρ0 cells, which lack mitochondrial DNA, were completely resistant to capsaicin mediated ROS generation and apoptosis. Our results reveal that the release of cytochrome c and cleavage of both caspase-9 and caspase-3 due to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly blocked by catalase and EUK-134 in BxPC-3 cells. Our results further demonstrate that capsaicin treatment not only inhibit the enzymatic activity and expression of SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase but also reduce glutathione level. Over-expression of catalase by transient transfection protected the cells from capsaicin-mediated ROS generation and apoptosis. Furthermore, tumors from mice orally fed with 2.5 mg/kg capsaicin show decreased SOD activity and an increase in GSSG/GSH levels as compared to controls. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of mitochondrial complex-I and III in capsaicin-mediated ROS generation and decrease in antioxidant levels resulting in severe mitochondrial damage leading to apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells

    Effective Rheology of Bubbles Moving in a Capillary Tube

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    We calculate the average volumetric flux versus pressure drop of bubbles moving in a single capillary tube with varying diameter, finding a square-root relation from mapping the flow equations onto that of a driven overdamped pendulum. The calculation is based on a derivation of the equation of motion of a bubble train from considering the capillary forces and the entropy production associated with the viscous flow. We also calculate the configurational probability of the positions of the bubbles.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figur

    Biodegradable, flexible silicon nanomembrane-based NO x gas sensor system with record-high performance for transient environmental monitors and medical implants

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    Abstract: A novel transient electronics technology that is capable of completely dissolving or decomposing in certain conditions after a period of operation offers unprecedented opportunities for medical implants, environmental sensors, and other applications. Here, we describe a biodegradable, flexible silicon-based electronic system that detects NO species with a record-breaking sensitivity of 136 Rs (5 ppm, NO2) and 100-fold selectivity for NO species over other substances with a fast response (~30 s) and recovery (~60 s). The exceptional features primarily depend on not only materials, dimensions, and design layouts but also temperatures and electrical operations. Large-scale sensor arrays in a mechanically pliable configuration exhibit negligible deterioration in performance under various modes of applied loads, consistent with mechanics modeling. In vitro evaluations demonstrate the capability and stability of integrated NOx devices in severe wet environments for biomedical applications

    Differentially expressed microRNAs in experimental cerebral malaria and their involvement in endocytosis, adherens junctions, FoxO and TGF-β signalling pathways

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    Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe manifestation of infection with Plasmodium, however its pathogenesis is still not completely understood. microRNA (miRNA) have been an area of focus in infectious disease research, due to their ability to affect normal biological processes, and have been shown to play roles in various viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, including malaria. The expression of miRNA was studied following infection of CBA mice with either Plasmodium berghei ANKA (causing CM), or Plasmodium yoelii (causing severe but non-cerebral malaria (NCM)). Using microarray analysis, miRNA expression was compared in the brains of non-infected (NI), NCM and CM mice. Six miRNA were significantly dysregulated between NCM and CM mice, and four of these, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-142-3p and miR-223-3p, were further validated by qPCR assays. These miRNA are significantly involved in several pathways relevant to CM, including the TGF-β and endocytosis pathways. Dysregulation of these miRNA during CM specifically compared with NCM suggests that these miRNA, through their regulation of downstream targets, may be vitally involved in the neurological syndrome. Our data implies that, at least in the mouse model, miRNA may play a regulatory role in CM pathogenesis.This work was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (#1099920 for GEG). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.S