164 research outputs found

    Lower Lip Paresthesia in a Patient With Carious Mandibular Premolar: A Case Report

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    Several dental operations, including local anaesthetic administrations, wisdom teeth procedures, orthognathic surgical treatments, ablative operations, implantation, and root canal therapy, can cause numbness and tingling of the inferior alveolar nerve. The present case report explains a case report of lower lip paresthesia arising due to carious mandibular premolar

    CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH SYNCHRONOUS PRIMARY OVARIAN AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCERS

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    Purpose: Synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers are infrequent. The objective of this study is to¬†evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancers treated in our institution.Materials and Methods: The clinicopathological characteristics of 12 patients with synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancers treated at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, from July 2005 to July 2015, were reviewed retrospectively in depth from hospital database. The WHO committee classification was used for the histologic determination and staged based on International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging. Results: The median age at the time of diagnosis was 50 years (range 23‚Äď66 years). The incidence of synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers was 2.01% in patients with endometrial cancer. A total of seven patients were menopausal (58%) and eight patients were nulliparous (66%); the median body mass index (BMI) was 29 kg/m2¬†(range, 20‚Äď38). Abnormal uterine bleeding was the most common presenting symptom. According to FIGO stage, 10 cases of endometrial were Stage I/II (84%) and two cases were Stage III (16%). Of the ovarian cancers, nine cases were Stage I/II (83.3%) and two cases were Stage III (16.7%). Endometrial cancer was the main pathological type in uterine carcinoma (86%) followed by serous carcinoma (14%), and similarly, for ovarian cancer, endometrial was the most common pathology (67%) followed by serous/clear cell (16%) and mucinous (16.7%). Most endometrial and ovarian primaries in our series were Grade I and II tumours, 83% and 66%, respectively. 8 patients (66%) had similar histology in both primaries. All patients underwent surgical intervention. Only one patient did not receive any post-operative adjuvant therapy. 10 patients received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy and six patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion: Synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers are infrequent and distinct set of patients. Abnormal per vaginal bleed was the most common symptom which helped in early detection. Majority of the patients belong to concordant endometrial histology, low grade, had younger age and high BMI. Treatment should be tailored to the stage, histology and grade of the individual tumours. Key words: Endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, synchronous tumour

    HYPOFRACTIONATED RADIOTHERAPY IN GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

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    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes in glioblastoma patients treated with hypofractionated¬†radiotherapy.Materials and Methods: We reviewed all glioblastoma patients treated at our specialist cancer centre over 7 and a 1‚ĀĄ2 years using hypofractionated radiotherapy (HRT) postoperatively. The HRT regimen was 48 Gy given at 3 Gy/ fractions in 16 fractions. We calculated overall survival using time to event analyses. Results: A total of 62 patients were identi ed of whom 44 (71%) were male. The median age of these patients was 50 years (range: 20‚Äď71 years). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status was 0 in 47 (76%) and 1 in 15 (24%) patients. 7 (11%) of the patients underwent gross total resection, 52 (83%) had subtotal resection and 3 (5%) had a biopsy only. Response assessment on magnetic resonance imaging at 3-month post-HRT showed that 14 (22%) patients had regression, 21 (34%) were stable and 22 (35%) had a progressive primary tumour. 5 (8%) patients were lost to follow up. With a median follow-up of 7.8 months, the median overall survival was 9 months. Patients with ECOG-0 showed a median survival of 7 months as compared to 6 months for those with ECOG-1. Patients with¬†stable or partial response showed a median overall survival of 8 months in comparison to 6 months for those with progressive disease. There were no signi cant differences in median survival based on the extent of surgery. A Cox multivariate model con rmed signi cant correlation of age and response to radiotherapy with survival. Conclusion: HRT consisting of 48 Gy in 3 weeks can be used for selected glioblastoma patients to reduce the overall treatment time of conventional radiotherapy by 35‚Äď40% without apparent increased toxicity or decrement in survival in a low resource environment. Key words: Chemoradiation, glioblastoma, hypofractionated radiotherapy, survival

    The Association of Gender with the Patterns of Impactions and Associated Radiolucency’s in Mandible and Maxilla

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    OBJECTIVES To find the association between gender and the patterns of impactions and associated radiolucency in Mandibleand Maxilla. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 385 Orthopantomograms (OPG) of patients visiting SharifMedical and Dental College (SMDC), Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) and Institute of Dentistry,CMH, Lahore Medical College, Lahore over a period of three months from December 2020 to February 2021.The angle of the impacted third molar was classified using Winters classification. The Pell and Gregoryclassification was used for depth of third molar impaction and ramus relationship of mandibular third molars.Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 23 and a P value ‚ȧ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The angle of impaction and gender in impacted mandibular third molars were significantly associated with eachother (p=0.011) while the depth of impaction (p=0.729), and ramus relationship(p=0.318) were not significantlyassociated with gender. The associa tion between gender and periapical radiolucency (p=0.605), peri coronalradiolucency (p=0.591), caries (p=0.499) and external resorption (p=0.499) were non-significant. In maxillaryimpacted third molars the association between gender and depth of impaction (p=0.121), angle of impaction(p=0.284), periapical radiolucency (p=0.111), peri coronal radiolucency (p=0.805) and caries (p=1.000) werenon-significant. CONCLUSION In impacted mandibular third molars the periapical, peri coronal radiolucency,caries and external resorption weremore in the males as compared to the females. In maxillary third molar impactions, the periapical radiolucencyradiolucency was greater in males while peri coronal radiolucency was greater in females

    Advancement in artificial intelligence for on-farm fruit sorting and transportation

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    On-farm sorting and transportation of postharvest fruit include sorting out defective products, grading them into categories based on quality, distributing them into bins, and carrying bins to field collecting stations. Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) can speed up on-farm sorting and transportation with high accuracy and robustness and significantly reduce postharvest losses. The primary objective of this literature review is to provide an overview to present a critical analysis and identify the challenges and opportunities of AI applications for on-farm sorting and transportation, with a focus on fruit. The challenges of on-farm sorting and transportation were discussed to specify the role of AI. Sensors and techniques for data acquisition were investigated to illustrate the tasks that AI models have addressed for on-farm sorting and transportation. AI models proposed in previous studies were compared to investigate the adequate approaches for on-farm sorting and transportation. Finally, the advantages and limitations of utilizing AI have been discussed, and in-depth analysis has been provided to identify future research directions. We anticipate that this survey will pave the way for further studies on the implementation of automated systems for on-farm fruit sorting and transportation

    Hepatitis C Treatment: current and future perspectives

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    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of Flaviviridae family and one of the major causes of liver disease. There are about 175 million HCV infected patients worldwide that constitute 3% of world's population. The main route of HCV transmission is parental however 90% intravenous drug users are at highest risk. Standard interferon and ribavirin remained a gold standard of chronic HCV treatment having 38-43% sustained virological response rates. Currently the standard therapy for HCV is pegylated interferon (PEG-INF) with ribavirin. This therapy achieves 50% sustained virological response (SVR) for genotype 1 and 80% for genotype 2 & 3. As pegylated interferon is expensive, standard interferon is still the main therapy for HCV treatment in under developed countries. On the other hand, studies showed that pegylated IFN and RBV therapy has severe side effects like hematological complications. Herbal medicines (laccase, proanthocyandin, Rhodiola kirilowii) are also being in use as a natural and alternative way for treatment of HCV but there is not a single significant report documented yet. Best SVR indicators are genotype 3 and 2, < 0.2 million IU/mL pretreatment viral load, rapid virological response (RVR) rate and age <40 years. New therapeutic approaches are under study like interferon related systems, modified forms of ribavirin, internal ribosome entry site (HCV IRES) inhibitors, NS3 and NS5a inhibitors, novel immunomodulators and specifically targeted anti-viral therapy for hepatitis C compounds. More remedial therapies include caspase inhibitors, anti-fibrotic agents, antibody treatment and vaccines

    Wood-derived biochar influences nutrient use efficiency of heavy metals in spinach (spinacia oleracea) under groundwater and wastewater irrigation

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    Present study analysed the influence of slow-pyrolyzed wood-derived biochar on growth performance and heavy metal accumulation in the leaves of spinach grown under groundwater and wastewater irrigation. Biochar was applied in soil as 5% (~30 t¬∑ha‚ąí1) and 10% (~60 t¬∑ha‚ąí1) amendment. According to results, plant biomass was significantly higher under wastewater than groundwater irrigation. Biochar amendment increased significantly the aboveground plant biomass and root biomass and promoted water use efficiency (WUE). Under groundwater irrigation, biochar amendment at 10% application rate, increased the leaf area index (P < 0.05), while amendment of biochar at all application rates significantly reduced leaf area index under wastewater irrigation (P < 0.05). Application of biochar also reduced accumulation of rhizosphere soil around roots under wastewater irrigation, indicating less exudate production in the rhizosphere of plants. Biochar significantly reduced the concentration of copper (Cu) in under wastewater irrigation. Biochar increased the nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of plants for zinc (Zn) and Cu under wastewater irrigation

    Burden of cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2005-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study

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    Fitzmaurice C, Alsharif U, El Bcheraoui C, et al. Burden of cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2005-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 2018;63(Suppl. 1):151-164.To estimate incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) caused by cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 2005 and 2015. Vital registration system and cancer registry data from the EMR region were analyzed for 29 cancer groups in 22 EMR countries using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 methodology. In 2015, cancer was responsible for 9.4% of all deaths and 5.1% of all DALYs. It accounted for 722,646 new cases, 379,093 deaths, and 11.7 million DALYs. Between 2005 and 2015, incident cases increased by 46%, deaths by 33%, and DALYs by 31%. The increase in cancer incidence was largely driven by population growth and population aging. Breast cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia were the most common cancers, while lung, breast, and stomach cancers caused most cancer deaths. Cancer is responsible for a substantial disease burden in the EMR, which is increasing. There is an urgent need to expand cancer prevention, screening, and awareness programs in EMR countries as well as to improve diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care services

    Trends in HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality in Eastern 3 Mediterranean countries, 1990‚Äď2015: findings from the Global 4 Burden of Disease 2015 study

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    Objectives We used the results of the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study to estimate trends of HIV/AIDS burden in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries between 1990 and 2015. Methods Tailored estimation methods were used to produce final estimates of mortality. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by multiplying the mortality rate by population by age-specific life expectancy. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were computed as the prevalence of a sequela multiplied by its disability weight. Results In 2015, the rate of HIV/AIDS deaths in the EMR was 1.8 (1.4‚Äď2.5) per 100,000 population, a 43% increase from 1990 (0.3; 0.2‚Äď0.8). Consequently, the rate of YLLs due to HIV/AIDS increased from 15.3 (7.6‚Äď36.2) per 100,000 in 1990 to 81.9 (65.3‚Äď114.4) in 2015. The rate of YLDs increased from 1.3 (0.6‚Äď3.1) in 1990 to 4.4 (2.7‚Äď6.6) in 2015. Conclusions HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality increased in the EMR since 1990. To reverse this trend and achieve epidemic control, EMR countries should strengthen HIV surveillance,and scale up HIV antiretroviral therapy and comprehensive prevention services
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