38 research outputs found

    Strategi Pembangunan Pariwisata melalui Sinergitas Dinas Pariwisata dengan Desa Adat ( Studi Kasus pada Pengelolaan Obyek Wisata Pantai Labuan Sait dalam Meningkatkan Retribusi Daerah di Kabupaten Badung)

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    A gradual Tourism development is very important to improve the quality of tourism each year to compete with other tourist attraction. The synergy between the Central Government with local government plays an important role to the development of tourism. The background to this research is the development of tourism which is still insufficient in Labuan Sait both in terms of means and infrastructure, promotion, as well as structuring tourism. This study measures how does tourism development strategy through the synergy with the customary village tourism office on the management of Beach Tourism Labuan Sait in increasing the levy County in Badung Regency with the theory of development that uses the concept of planning development by Sjahrizal in the regional development planning in the era of autonomy. The indicator consists of planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In addition also use the concept of synergy from Najiyati and Rahmat which consists of indicators communication and coordination as well as indicators of the SWOT by Freddy Rangkuti. Method used in this study is a qualitative method with descriptive approach with data collection techniques in the form of in-depth interviews to several informants associated with this research. The results of the research showed that the development strategy of tourism through the synergy with the customary village Tourism Office on the management of Beach Tourism Labuan Sait in improving regional levies in Badung Regency are still insufficient. That is because the is still lacking from the indicator monitoring and implementation and evaluation of the impact against the decline of levy of admission attractions Labuan Sait in the 2017.     Keywords: Development, Tourism, Synergy, and Strateg

    Experimental design/workflow.

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    <p>Diagram shows the experimental design for a complete workflow to analyse genome wide histone modifications of CD 14++ CD 16- monocytes using 30 ml of blood.</p

    Histone modifications at promoters of CD 14++ CD 16- monocytes.

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    <p>A) H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 are both enriched at promoters. Significantly bound regions were compared with the distribution of genomic features (TSS, TSS upstream, TES, exon, intron, intergenic) based on RefSeq gene annotations. In comparison to the genomic background (genome) both H3K27me3, but especially H3K4me3 are strongly enriched for TSSs. B) K-means clustering reveals 3 major chromatin states at 44109 RefSeq transcriptional start sites. The heat map shows binding (in red) centered across a 10 kb interval spanning all RefSeq TSSs for H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 in 4 blood donors. The data was clustered by k-means which separates the data into 3 major promoter classes: no histone modification (dark blue), high H3K4me3/no H3K27me3 (blue) and low but detectable H3K4me3 and high H3K4me3 (light blue). C) Promoter classes are associated with specific transcriptional output. Gene expression levels in CD14+ monocytes were calculated for all RefSeq genes (based on ENCODE RNA-seq data, shown as reads per 1 kb of transcript length). Gene expression values of genes falling into above mentioned categories are plotted as boxplots.</p

    Correlation analysis shows high reproducibility between independent biological samples.

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    <p>A) H3K4me3 binding data from 4 donors was compared against each other with respect to binding to promoters. Quantile-normalized read counts per promoter interval (+/−1 kb around the transcriptional start sites) were plotted for all pair-wise combinations as smoothed scatterplots (color-coding of density is shown in color key). Furthermore Pearson’s R was calculated for each combination. B) Pair wise correlation was done for H3K4me3, H3K27me3 as well as H3K9ac data from 4 donors. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the resulting correlation matrix identifies two major groups: H3K9ac and H3K4me3 are strongly correlated whereas both are negatively correlated with H3K27me3 (color-coding of correlation coefficients is shown in color key).</p

    Functional networks most significanty modulated in PPD-B stimulated PBMC from vaccinated/protected calves.

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    <p>Visualisation of the trend and significance of each network: Red bars = up-regulation; blue bars = down-regulation of network. Horizontal bar: p = 0.05.</p

    BCG-vaccinated and control cattle samples mapped to <i>ifn-γ</i> and <i>il-22</i> genes.

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    <p>Visualization by IGB of RNA sequencing reads of representative PPD-B stimulated PBMC from vaccinated-protected, vaccinate-un-protected and non-vaccinated control cattle. Y-axis shows the number of reads covering each base along the transcript in RPKM expression values for each sample. Black track: unvaccinated control cattle; red track: vaccinated/un-protected cattle and blue track: vaccinated/protected cattle. The schematic representation of transcript for (A) <i>ifn-γ</i> and (B) <i>il-22</i> is show in green at the bottom of the each figure; the boxes show the exons of the gene.</p

    Results of RNA-Seq analysis.

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    <p>A. Signficantly modulated genes in the three treatment groups. B. Venn diagrams of genes significantly up-regulated and (C) down-regulated genes after vaccination but prior to <i>M. bovis</i> challenge. A. Fold change compared to unstimulated PBMC (medium controls) of PPD-B stimulated PBMC compared to medium controls from unvaccinated, naïve calves (group 1), vaccinated/non-protected (group 2), and vaccinated/protected calves (group 3).</p

    Gene expression in PPDB-stimulated PBMC from BCG vaccinated and control cattle.

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    <p>A. Protective efficacy after <i>M. bovis</i> challenge determined by pathology scoring. <a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003077#s2" target="_blank">Results</a> are expressed as total pathology scores <a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003077#ppat.1003077-Vordermeier1" target="_blank">[5]</a>. Filled circles, unvaccinated control calves; open triangles, BCG vaccinated calves. (B, C). Transcription of the genes expressing IFN-γ (B) and IL-22 (C) following <i>in vitro</i> stimulation. PBMC were collected from BCG vaccinated (filled symbols) and controls (open symbols) before challenge (week -1) and after challenge with <i>M. bovis</i> at weeks 2, 4 and 8, and stimulated with PPD-B for 24 hours. cDNA was prepared and gene expression determined by RT-qPCR. Data are expressed as log10 relative expression levels compared to non-stimulated cells. Statistical analysis: 2-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test, * P<0.05.</p

    Protection and <i>in vitro</i> IFN-γ responses prior to challenge.

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    <p>A. Individual pathology scores are shown for the animals used in this study. Naïve animals = no vaccination, Vacc/NP = vaccinated calves that were not protected; Vacc/P = vaccinated calves that were protected. B. Correlation of IFN-γ protein production in culture supernatants measured by Bovigam ELISA (y-axis) and <i>ifn-γ</i> gene expression as determined by deep sequencing (x-axis). Data are shown from PPD-B stimulated PBMC from individual animals. Supernatants and RNA were prepared after 24 h culture.</p

    Schematic representation of the genes involved in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction.

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    <p>Colour codes indicate genes that were significantly modulated in vaccinated/protected calves prior to <i>M. bovis</i> challenge. Red colour: up-regulated genes; blue colour: down-regulated genes. Darkness of colour indicates level of gene modification.</p