23 research outputs found

    Purification of Forest Clear-Cut Runoff Water Using Biochar: A Meso-Scale Laboratory Column Experiment

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    Biochar can be an effective sorbent material for removal of nutrients from water due to its high specific surface area, porous structure, and high cation and anion exchange capacity. The aim of this study was to test a biochar reactor and to evaluate its efficiency in runoff water purification and consecutive nutrient recycling in clear-cut peatland forests. The goodness of the method was tested in a meso-scale (water volume thousands of liters) reactor experiment by circulating runoff water through wood biochar-filled columns and by determining water nutrient concentrations in the column inlet and outlet. The pseudo-first and second order kinetic models were fitted to the experimental data and the adsorption rate (Kad) and maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) of the biochar reactor were quantified. The concentration of total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 58% during the 8-week experiment; the majority of TN adsorption occurred within the first 3 days. In addition, NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations decreased below the detection limit in 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biochar reactor varied between 0.03–0.04 mg g−1 biochar for NH4-N, and was equal to 0.02 mg g−1 biochar for TN. The results demonstrated that the biochar reactor was not able to adsorb TN when the water TN concentration was below 0.4 mg L−1. These results suggest that a biochar reactor can be a useful and effective method for runoff water purification in clear-cut forests and further development and testing is warranted. Unlike traditional water protection methods in peatland forestry, the biochar reactor can effectively remove NO3-N from water. This makes the biochar reactor a promising water protection tool to be tested in sites where there is the risk of a high rate of nutrient export after forest harvesting or drainage

    Purification of Forest Clear-Cut Runoff Water Using Biochar: A Meso-Scale Laboratory Column Experiment

    Get PDF
    Biochar can be an effective sorbent material for removal of nutrients from water due to its high specific surface area, porous structure, and high cation and anion exchange capacity. The aim of this study was to test a biochar reactor and to evaluate its efficiency in runoff water purification and consecutive nutrient recycling in clear-cut peatland forests. The goodness of the method was tested in a meso-scale (water volume thousands of liters) reactor experiment by circulating runoff water through wood biochar-filled columns and by determining water nutrient concentrations in the column inlet and outlet. The pseudo-first and second order kinetic models were fitted to the experimental data and the adsorption rate (Kad) and maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) of the biochar reactor were quantified. The concentration of total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 58% during the 8-week experiment; the majority of TN adsorption occurred within the first 3 days. In addition, NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations decreased below the detection limit in 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biochar reactor varied between 0.03–0.04 mg g−1 biochar for NH4-N, and was equal to 0.02 mg g−1 biochar for TN. The results demonstrated that the biochar reactor was not able to adsorb TN when the water TN concentration was below 0.4 mg L−1. These results suggest that a biochar reactor can be a useful and effective method for runoff water purification in clear-cut forests and further development and testing is warranted. Unlike traditional water protection methods in peatland forestry, the biochar reactor can effectively remove NO3-N from water. This makes the biochar reactor a promising water protection tool to be tested in sites where there is the risk of a high rate of nutrient export after forest harvesting or drainage

    Nitrogen Recovery from Clear‑Cut Forest Runoff Using Biochar: Adsorption–Desorption Dynamics Affected by Water Nitrogen Concentration

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    Forest regeneration operations increase the concentration of nitrogen (N) in watercourses especially outside the growing season when traditional biological water protection methods are inefficient. Biochar adsorption-based water treatment could be a solution for nutrient retention. We studied the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) adsorption-desorption properties of spruce and birch biochar. The adsorption test was performed under four different initial concentrations of TN (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg L-1) using forest runoff water collected from ditch drains of boreal harvested peatland. The results showed that the TN adsorption amount increased linearly from the lowest to the highest concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity was 2.4 and 3.2 times greater in the highest concentration (4 mg L-1) compared to the lowest concentration (1 mg L-1) in spruce and birch biochar, respectively. The NO3--N adsorption amount of birch biochar increased linearly from 0 to 0.15 mg NO3--N g biochar(-1) when the initial concentration of NO3--N increased from 0.2 to 1.4 mg L-1. However, in spruce biochar, the initial concentration did not affect NO3--N adsorption amount. The results indicate that concentration significantly affects the biochar's capacity to adsorb N from water. The desorption test was performed by adding biochar extracted from the adsorption test into the forest runoff water with low TN concentration (0.2 or 0.35 mg L-1). The desorption results showed that desorption was negligibly small, and it was dependent on the TN concentration for birch biochar. Therefore, biochar can be a complementary method supporting water purification in peatland areas.Peer reviewe

    On-Line Pulp Quality Information

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    On-Line Pulp Quality Information

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    Bioenergia-asiantuntijuutta kehittÀmÀssÀ EtelÀ-Pohjanmaalla

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    EU on sitoutunut kasvattamaan uusiutuvien energialĂ€hteiden osuutta kokonaisenergian kulutuksesta 20 prosenttiin vuoteen 2020 mennessĂ€. Suomessa uusiutuvien energialĂ€hteiden osuutta tulisi kasvattaa 38 prosenttiin. TĂ€mĂ€ aiheuttaa uusia haasteita bioenergia-alan yrittĂ€jille sekĂ€ muille energia-alan toimijoille. Alan kehittyessĂ€ uutta tietoa tulisi pystyĂ€ vĂ€littĂ€mÀÀn alan toimijoille uusin ja olemassa olevin menetelmin. Bioenergia-asiantuntijuuden kehittĂ€minen työelĂ€mĂ€lĂ€htöisesti (ESR) -kehittĂ€mishanke toteutettiin vuosina 2009 – 2012 EtelĂ€-Pohjanmaalla SeinĂ€joen ammattikorkeakoulun maa- ja metsĂ€talouden yksikön toimesta. Bioenergia-asiantuntijuushankkeessa kehitettiin bioenergia-alalle muun muassa oppimisympĂ€ristöjĂ€, muodostettiin bioenergia-asiantuntijuusverkosto, aktivoitiin alueen bioenergiatoimijaverkostoa, toteutettiin ennakointiraportti, pilotointiin ja testattiin toimintamalleja sekĂ€ jĂ€rjestettiin bioenergia-aiheisia tapahtumia. OppimisympĂ€ristöÀ voidaan hyödyntÀÀ ammattikorkeakouluopetuksen tukena sekĂ€ bioenergiayrityksissĂ€ eri tavoin. Bioenergia-asiantuntijuusverkosto toimii alueella asiantuntijatahona, josta on hyötyĂ€ sekĂ€ ammattikorkeakouluopetukselle sekĂ€ alueelle. Bioenergia-aiheiset tapahtumat kerĂ€sivĂ€t useita osallistujia, mutta ehdottomasti suosituimmat tapahtumat olivat bioenergia-aiheiset messut TuomarniemellĂ€ sekĂ€ Kurejoella. Yritykset hyötyivĂ€t tapahtumista myös verkostoitumisen nĂ€kökulmasta. Hanke oli kokonaisuutena onnistunut ja siitĂ€ saatu palaute oli positiivista. Hankkeen pysyviksi tuloksiksi voidaan raporttien ja julkaisujen lisĂ€ksi todeta oppimisympĂ€ristö sekĂ€ bioenergia-asiantuntijuusverkosto. OppimisympĂ€ristö jĂ€i SeinĂ€joen ammattikorkeakoulun yllĂ€pidettĂ€vĂ€ksi. Bioenergia-asiantuntijuusverkosto jatkoi toimintaansa muun muassa JĂ€rviseudulla toimivassa JĂ€rvikillassa.The EU has set the goal for the use of renewable energy at 20 percent by the year 2020. The Finnish national goal is 38 percent. This goal has set new challenges for entrepreneurs who are working in the field of bioenergy. Bioenergy is developing all the time and because of this new information should be passed on to persons who are working in the field of bioenergy continuously. SeinĂ€joki University of Applied Sciences (School of Forestry and Agriculture) implemented the bioenergy expertise project (Bioenergia-asiantuntijuuden kehittĂ€minen työelĂ€mĂ€lĂ€htöisesti) during the years 2009 – 2012 in Southern Ostrobothnia of Finland. The bioenergy expertise project developed the Learning Environment in the field of bioenergy, formed a bioenergy professionals’ network, activated the bioenergy entrepreneur network, implemented the report on the future needs of bioenergy education, tested and piloted a reference model for information collection using mobile systems with the bioenergy actors, and arranged bioenergy themed events. The Learning Environment can be used to meet the needs of the University of Applied Sciences and by the entrepreneurs in the area. The bioenergy professionals’ network is a group of professionals who work in the area of Southern Ostrobothnia. Bioenergy themed events attracted a lot of participants, but the most popular events were the bioenergy fairs, which were arranged in Tuomarniemi and Kurejoki. The arranged events were also useful from the entrepreneurs networking point of view. The bioenergy expertise project was overall a success and the feedback was positive. The permanent results of the project are publications, reports, the bioenergy professionals’ network and the new Learning Environment. SeinĂ€joki University of Applied Sciences is hosting the Learning Environment. The bioenergy professionals’ network is continuing its activities in JĂ€rvikilta network of professionals, which also have activities in the area of Southern Ostrobothnia

    Discovery of MINC1, a GTPase-Activating Protein Small Molecule Inhibitor, Targeting MgcRacGAP

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    The Rho family of Ras superfamily small GTPases regulates a broad range of biological processes such as migration, differentiation, cell growth and cell survival. Therefore, the availability of small molecule modulators as tool compounds could greatly enhance research on these proteins and their biological function. To this end, we designed a biochemical, high throughput screening assay with complementary follow-up assays to identify small molecule compounds inhibiting MgcRacGAP, a Rho family GTPase activating protein involved in cytokinesis and transcriptionally upregulated in many cancers. We first performed an in-house screen of 20,480 compounds, and later we tested the assay against 342,046 compounds from the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository. Primary screening hit rates were about 1% with the majority of those affecting the primary readout, an enzyme-coupled GDP detection assay. After orthogonal and counter screens, we identified two hits with high selectivity towards MgcRacGAP, compared with other RhoGAPs, and potencies in the low micromolar range. The most promising hit, termed MINC1, was then examined with cell-based testing where it was observed to induce an increased rate of cytokinetic failure and multinucleation in addition to other cell division defects, suggesting that it may act as an MgcRacGAP inhibitor also in cells.Peer reviewe
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