4 research outputs found

    Evaluation of process causes and influences of residual stress on gear distortion

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    In the automotive industry, heat treatment of components is implicitly related to distortion. This phenomenon is particularly obvious in the case of gears because of their typical and precise geometry. Even if distortion can be anticipated to an extent by experience, it remains complex to comprehend. This paper presents an approach to estimate the distortion based on the idea of a distortion potential taking into account not only geometry but also the manufacturing process history. Then the idea is developed through simulation and experiments including annealing to understand the impact of residual stress on gear distortion in an industrial case study

    Evaluation of process causes and influences of residual stress on gear distortion

    Get PDF
    In the automotive industry, heat treatment of components is implicitly related to distortion. This phenomenon is particularly obvious in the case of gears because of their typical and precise geometry. Even if distortion can be anticipated to an extent by experience, it remains complex to comprehend. This paper presents an approach to estimate the distortion based on the idea of a distortion potential taking into account not only geometry but also the manufacturing process history. Then the idea is developed through simulation and experiments including annealing to understand the impact of residual stress on gear distortion in an industrial case study

    Global economic burden of unmet surgical need for appendicitis

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    Background There is a substantial gap in provision of adequate surgical care in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the economic burden of unmet surgical need for the common condition of appendicitis. Methods Data on the incidence of appendicitis from 170 countries and two different approaches were used to estimate numbers of patients who do not receive surgery: as a fixed proportion of the total unmet surgical need per country (approach 1); and based on country income status (approach 2). Indirect costs with current levels of access and local quality, and those if quality were at the standards of high-income countries, were estimated. A human capital approach was applied, focusing on the economic burden resulting from premature death and absenteeism. Results Excess mortality was 4185 per 100 000 cases of appendicitis using approach 1 and 3448 per 100 000 using approach 2. The economic burden of continuing current levels of access and local quality was US 92492millionusingapproach1and92 492 million using approach 1 and 73 141 million using approach 2. The economic burden of not providing surgical care to the standards of high-income countries was 95004millionusingapproach1and95 004 million using approach 1 and 75 666 million using approach 2. The largest share of these costs resulted from premature death (97.7 per cent) and lack of access (97.0 per cent) in contrast to lack of quality. Conclusion For a comparatively non-complex emergency condition such as appendicitis, increasing access to care should be prioritized. Although improving quality of care should not be neglected, increasing provision of care at current standards could reduce societal costs substantially

    Global economic burden of unmet surgical need for appendicitis