63 research outputs found

    Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes

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    This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5–10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90–95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25–30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30–35% are linked to diet, about 15–20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes

    Secondary cytogenetic abnormalities in core-binding factor AML harboring inv(16) vs t(8;21)

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    Patients with core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), caused by either t(8; 21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22), have higher complete remission rates and longer survival than patients with other subtypes of AML. However, similar to 40% of patients relapse, and the literature suggests that patients with inv(16) fare differently from those with t(8;21). We retrospectively analyzed 537 patients with CBF-AML, focusing on additional cytogenetic aberrations to examine their impact on clinical outcomes. Trisomies of chromosomes 8, 21, or 22 were significantly more common in patients with inv(16)/t(16;16): 16% vs 7%, 6% vs 0%, and 17% vs 0%, respectively. In contrast, del(9q) and loss of a sex chromosome were more frequent in patients with t(8;21): 15% vs 0.4% for del(9q), 37% vs 0% for loss of X in females, and 44% vs 5% for loss of Y in males. Hyperdiploidy was more frequent in patients with inv(16) (25% vs 9%, whereas hypodiploidy was more frequent in patients with t(8;21) (37% vs 3%. In multivariable analyses (adjusted for age, white blood counts at diagnosis, and KIT mutation status), trisomy 8 was associated with improved overall survival (OS) in inv(16), whereas the presence of other chromosomal abnormalities (not trisomy 8) was associated with decreased OS. In patients with t(8;21), hypodiploidy was associated with improved disease-free survival; hyperdiploidy and del(9q) were associated with improved OS. KIT mutation (either positive or not tested, compared with negative) conferred poor prognoses in univariate analysis only in patients with t(8;21)

    Leech repellents used by Estate workers in O’ valley Panchayat of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

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    A field study was conducted among estate workers of different types of plantations viz., cardamom, tea, clove, pepper and coffee where leech bite is common for humans and cattles in forest and estates. Plant- based products as leech repellents are used and applied by estate workers of O’valley Panchayat of Gudalur taluk in Nilgiris. The plant species used are enlisted. Estate workers as informants were interviewed with questionnaire group discussion. The data were analyzed using different statistical quantitative tools viz., use value (UV), frequency citation (FC), fidelity level (FI %) and factor informant consensus (FIC). The data obtained revealed use of seven medicinal plants as effective leech repellents. The species identified are- Oxalis latifolia L., Ageratum conizoides L., Nicotiana tobacum L., Piper betle L, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemslay), Cucumis prophetarum L. and Brugmansia suaveolens (Bercht)

    Facile isolation of (<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">E</i>)-labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial from <i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Curcuma amada </i>and its conversion to other biologically active compounds

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    319-324Curcuma amada Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes have been found to be a good source of (E)-labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial. This has been chemically transformed to other biologically active compounds like aframodial, zerumin A as well as other natural products like (E)-labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-olide, 15,16-epoxy-8(17),13(16),14-labdatriene and (-)-marginatone. The antimicrobial activity of zerumin A sodium salt as well as other derivatives of the dialdehyde has been established

    Mechanisms for the behavior of carbon films during annealing

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    The effect of annealing on 1 mum thick single and multilayer amorphous carbon (a-C) films prepared by filtered cathodic arc is investigated. Single layer films, with a sp(2) to sp(3) bonding fraction of approximately 50% increase their level of compressive stress following annealing. Multilayer films-consisting of alternating layers of high sp(3) fraction (tetrahedral amorphous carbon, ta-C) and intermediate sp(3) fraction show a decrease in compressive stress following annealing. Using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, we show that the single layer films and the intermediate sp(3) layers in the multilayer films develop a strong preferred orientation with graphite-like layers aligned perpendicular to the film surface. The ta-C layers in the multilayer films develop the opposite preferred orientation near their top interfaces. We conclude that these preferred orientation effects are linked to the stress profile of the structures. We propose an underlying mechanism for the annealing effects of a-C films based on ab initio calculations. In order to minimize total energy, intermediate sp(3) films will either decrease their sp(3) fraction and generate stress or increase their sp(3) fraction and relieve stress. On the other hand, high sp(3) films retain their high sp(3) fraction following annealing

    Mechanisms for the behaviour of amorphous carbon films during annealing

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    For the first time to our knowledge, the 13C solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectrum of a 99% 13C enriched tetrahedral amorphous-carbon (ta-C) thin film containing a high concentration of fourfold coordinated carbon species (82%) is reported along with measured NMR spectra for the ta-C film after low temperature annealing (650 ºC). Differential changes are observed for the 13C MAS NMR chemical shifts and linewidths of both the fourfold (diamondlike) and threefold (graphitelike) coordinated carbon species within the thin films with increasing annealing time; however, there was no change (±2%) in the relative fourfold content. These spectral changes are associated with the large compressive stress reduction (6-8 GPa) in the carbon film. Ab initio calculations of the 13C NMR chemical shift, along with shift variations as a function of atomic volume are reported for amorphous carbon and crystalline diamond. Using the observed spectral variations in the solid-state 13C MAS NMR, along with the ab initio chemical shift calculations, the effect of annealing on the ta-C films is discussed and related to current models of thermal stress relaxation in ta-C thin films

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

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    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been used with a filtered cathodic arc to implant copper and carbon ions into poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The PTFE substrates for the copper implantation were placed perpendicular to the plasma beam, whilst those for carbon implantation were oriented parallel to the drift velocity of the beam to, minimise the deposition of low energy ions. Electrodes in the form of a backing plate and a mask with holes were used to apply the pulsed bias from the PIII supply. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that there is a structural change in the PTFE induced by both the copper and carbon implantation. Raman spectroscopy of the carbon implanted samples showed the presence of an amorphous carbon peak, which remained even after cleaning the surface to remove loosely bound carbon. This shows that there is both implantation and deposition of the carbon occurring. In the case of copper, this method resulted in well-adhered films. The implanted PTFE has been examined for changes in wear resistance. Both copper and carbon modified surfaces showed improvements in wear resistance

    Analysis of association of TaqI VDR gene polymorphism with the chronic periodontitis in Dravidian ethnicity

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    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the association of TaqI vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism with the chronic periodontitis (CP) in Dravidian ethnicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 subjects were recruited for this study, which included 60 CP and 60 healthy controls. TaqI VDR gene polymorphism was analyzed using specific primers and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and visualized under 2% agarose gel. Results: Our study results showed that Tt and tt genotype had a higher frequency of occurrence in CP compared with controls. Similarly, t allele was found to be associated with CP. Conclusion: Our study concludes that TaqI VDR gene polymorphism is associated with CP in Dravidian ethnicity
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