3,583 research outputs found

    Detection techniques of selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor networks: a survey

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    The wireless sensor network has become a hot research area due its wide range of application in military and civilian domain, but as it uses wireless media for communication these are easily prone to security attacks. There are number of attacks on wireless sensor networks like black hole attack, sink hole attack, Sybil attack, selective forwarding attacks etc. in this paper we will concentrate on selective forwarding attacks In selective forwarding attacks, malicious nodes behave like normal nodes and selectively drop packets. The selection of dropping nodes may be random. Identifying such attacks is very difficult and sometimes impossible. In this paper we have listed up some detection techniques, which have been proposed by different researcher in recent years, there we also have tabular representation of qualitative analysis of detection techniquesComment: 6 Page

    An evaluation tool for design quality: PFI sheltered housing

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    The complex procurement process entailed by the private finance initiative (PFI) means that clients need new capacities to manage their relationships with bidders and to assess project proposals if the desired level of design quality is to be achieved. To assist local authorities in their client role, a new Architectural Design Quality Evaluation Tool was developed. The aim was to improve the quality of design in residential sheltered housing, procured through the PFI. The tool was developed for and applied to a programme that will see the replacement of a local authority's entire sheltered housing stock. The tool has two functions: (1) to inform the client's assessment process and assist with the selection of the preferred bidding consortium through a series of stages in the PFI process; and (2) to improve the quality of all the submitted designs through an iterative process. Although several existing mechanisms are available for evaluating the performance attributes of buildings, few also tackle the less tangible amenity attributes, which are vital to the feeling of home. The new tool emphasizes the amenity attributes without neglecting performance


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    Positive-strand RNA virus group are the most abundant among viruses affecting plants and animals. To successfully achieve replication, these viruses usurp or co-opt host proteins. To facilitate the discovery of host factors involved in Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), yeast has been developed as a surrogate model host. Genome-wide approaches covering 95% of yeast genes, has revealed approximately hundred factors that could affect virus replication. Among the identified host factors, there are fourteen yeast genes, which affect/regulate lipid metabolism of the host. One of the identified host gene is ERG25, which is an important factor for sterol biosynthesis pathway, affecting viral replication. Sterols present in eukaryotes affect the lipid composition of membranes, where tombusviruses, similar to other plus-strand viruses of tobacco, replicate. Since potent inhibitors of sterol synthesis are known, I have tested their effects on tombusvirus replication. We demonstrated that these sterolsynthesis inhibitors reduced virus replication in tobacco protoplasts. Virus replication is resumed to the wild type level by providing phytosterols in tobacco protoplasts confirming the role of sterols in RNA virus replication in tobacco. We have also identified INO2, a transcription factor for many phospholipid biosynthetic genes, reduces virus replication in its deletion background. When we provided this gene product in the mutant background, viral replication was back to normal, confirming the role of Ino2p in tombusvirus replication. Further biochemical assays showed that the viral inhibition is because of alteration in the formation of the viral replicase complex. Using confocal microscopy, we showed that the viral replication protein, termed p33, is forming large and few punctate structures rather than the small and many by overexpressing Ino2p in the wild type yeast cells. Over-expression of Opi1, an inhibitor of Ino2p led to greatly reduced viral replication, further supporting the roles of the phospholipid pathway in tombusvirus replication. One of the phospholipid, which is regulated by this pathway, is cardiolipin an important component of the mitochondrial as well as peroxisomal membranes. We further characterized how cardiolipin is playing an important role for tombusvirus replication by using different biochemical approaches

    Architectural Design Quality in Local Authority Private Finance Initiative Projects

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    Since the 1990s, when the Private Finance Initiative was developed as the primary method for delivering major public capital projects, there has been concern about the quality of many of the products. Initially, it was the architectural community that raised doubts, but it has subsequently been joined by user groups. As the contractual period is over 30 years, there are issues such as ongoing maintenance, facilities management and operational factors, that need to be balanced with design quality. This paper will report on a research project being carried out with a metropolitan local authority in England, which is replacing its entire sheltered housing stock in one Private Finance Initiative project. The principal aim of the local authority is that it should receive these buildings as assets, rather than liabilities at the end of the 30 year period. The research work to date has been based on two stages of a three stage selection of the preferred bidder from the original six consortia. The aims of this paper are to review the Private Finance Initiative management processes in relation to architectural design quality at each of the selection stages, including the generation and application of the design assessment criteria, and the role of user groups; and evaluate the outcomes against the objectives of maximising design quality within workable financial models. The methodology is that the researcher is based in the local authority project team, and has therefore been able to use participant observation techniques in the management processes, which include competitive dialogue and user consultation. The design assessment criteria were developed from the academic literature and refined at each selection stage. A comparative analysis of the design assessment criteria with intermediate and final designs, will assist in identifying the status of design quality in the selection of the preferred bidder