78 research outputs found

    « Arithmétique politique » et bataille de(s) chiffres

    Get PDF
    Le problème que pose l’arithmétique politique est double : la précision géométrique est-elle compatible avec la politique ? Est-elle nécessaire pour emporter l’adhésion ? L’étude s’intéresse aux relations que l’alliance entre arithmétique et politique instaure entre trois pôles (les chiffres, le réel dont ils sont censés rendre compte, l’énonciateur) et s’appuie sur l’analyse d’un bref extrait d’une « bataille de chiffres » contemporaine et sur la présentation critique que font Diderot (1751) et Robinet (1778) de l’arithmétique politique telle qu’elle est initiée par le chevalier Petty (1687, 1691).Political arithmetic raises a towfold problem: Is geometrical precision in harmony with politics? Is it necessary for adhesion? This paper focuses the bond arithmetic and politics manages to establish amongst three various poles: figures, the real they are supposed to convey and speaker. It relies on the analysis of a brief extract from contemporary « battles of figures » and the critical presentation that Diderot (1751) and Robinet (1778) make of political arithmetic as initiated by the chevalier Petty (1687-1691).El problema que plantea la aritmética política es doble: la precisión geométrica es compatible con la política? Es ella necesaria para obtener la adhesión? El estudio se interesa en las relaciones que la alianza entre aritmética y política instaura entre tres polos (las cifras, lo real donde ellas son llamadas a rendir cuentas, el anunciante) y se apoya sobre el análisis de un breve extracto de una “batalla de las cifras” contemporánea y sobre la presentación crítica que hacen Diderot (1751) y Robinet (1778) de la aritmética política tal como ella s iniciada por el caballero Petty (1867, 1691)

    Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention Groups

    Get PDF
    Background: Canagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, but effects on specific cardiovascular outcomes are uncertain, as are effects in people without previous cardiovascular disease (primary prevention). Methods: In CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation), 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were randomly assigned to canagliflozin or placebo on a background of optimized standard of care. Results: Primary prevention participants (n=2181, 49.6%) were younger (61 versus 65 years), were more often female (37% versus 31%), and had shorter duration of diabetes mellitus (15 years versus 16 years) compared with secondary prevention participants (n=2220, 50.4%). Canagliflozin reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.95]; P=0.01), with consistent reductions in both the primary (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.94]) and secondary (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]) prevention groups (P for interaction=0.25). Effects were also similar for the components of the composite including cardiovascular death (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61-1.00]), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.59-1.10]), and nonfatal stroke (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.56-1.15]). The risk of the primary composite renal outcome and the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure were also consistently reduced in both the primary and secondary prevention groups (P for interaction >0.5 for each outcome). Conclusions: Canagliflozin significantly reduced major cardiovascular events and kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, including in participants who did not have previous cardiovascular disease

    Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuric chronic kidney disease to receive canagliflozin, an oral SGLT2 inhibitor, at a dose of 100 mg daily or placebo. All the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30 to <90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and albuminuria (ratio of albumin [mg] to creatinine [g], >300 to 5000) and were treated with renin–angiotensin system blockade. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage kidney disease (dialysis, transplantation, or a sustained estimated GFR of <15 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), a doubling of the serum creatinine level, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. Prespecified secondary outcomes were tested hierarchically. RESULTS The trial was stopped early after a planned interim analysis on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring committee. At that time, 4401 patients had undergone randomization, with a median follow-up of 2.62 years. The relative risk of the primary outcome was 30% lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group, with event rates of 43.2 and 61.2 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.82; P=0.00001). The relative risk of the renal-specific composite of end-stage kidney disease, a doubling of the creatinine level, or death from renal causes was lower by 34% (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001), and the relative risk of end-stage kidney disease was lower by 32% (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.86; P=0.002). The canagliflozin group also had a lower risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P=0.01) and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of amputation or fracture. CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease, the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events was lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 2.62 years

    Les nombres (lexique et grammaire)

    No full text
    La recherche porte sur l'inscription du cardinal dans le système morphologique constructionnel du français et conduit à fonder une classe sui generis pour rendre compte des spécificités sémantiques, syntaxiques et constructionnelles du cardinal. En effet, l'étude met au jour une contradiction entre les analyses qui sont habituellement faites des cardinaux et le cadre théorique de la morphologie lexématique : d'une part les cardinaux, majoritairement analysés comme des déterminants, sont la base de suffixés (les ordinaux, et d'autres séries plus ou moins déféctives) ; d'autre part, on prédit que seuls les lexèmes appartenant aux catégories majeures (N,V, A, Adv) peuvent constituer des bases pour la dérivation, à l'exclusion des mots grammaticaux. A partir de la mise en évidence de ce paradoxe, la recherche consiste à établir un corpus des suffixés sur base CARD et à réinterroger la catégorisation des cardinaux telle qu'on la trouve dans les grammaires et les monographies sur les déterminants. Sont réinterrogés aussi les critères qui président à la répartition des unités linguistiques entre mots lexicaux et mots grammaticaux . On montre ainsi que les propriétés sémantiques, morphologiques et syntaxiques des cardinaux les situent plutôt dans l'ensemble des mots lexicaux (ou lexèmes). Mais, ils n'en sont pas pour autant des N ou des A. Au vu des ces difficultés de catégorisation, on cherche à constituer une classe CARD telle qu'elle puisse rendre compte des propriétés différentielles des cardinaux. Trois études centrées sur la morphologie constructionnelle des cardinaux (la suffixation en -A1N, quatrain..., douzaine..., la suffixation en -IEME (les ordinaux deuxième, troisième... ) et la sémantique lexicale des dits préfixés (bimensuel, triacide... ) montrent les spécificités du système constructionnel CARD, et servent ainsi à étayer l'hypothèse d'une catégorie sui generis.This work researches how cardinal numerals operate in the constructional morphological system of the French language and shows how they should be regarded as forming a sui generis' class of their own in order to account for their semantic, syntactic and constructional specificities. There is a contradiction between linguistic data and the theoretical framework of lexematic morphology. On the one hand, cardinal numerals, in most cases regarded as determiners, are the basis of suffixed words like ordinal numerals and other somewhat defective series. On the other hand, theory has it that only those lexemes belonging to the major N,V,A and Adv categories can be used as a basis for derivation , excluding all grammatical words. Alter exposing the paradox the study focuses on establishing a corpus of all the CARD based suffixed words and questions the categorization of cardinal numerals that can be found in grammar books or essaya about determiners. Also questioned are the criteria used to draw the limits between the so called lexical' words' and grammatical' words. With their semantic, morphological and syntactic properties cardinal numerals look as if they belong to the group of lexical words (or lexemes). But that does not make them either N or A. In view of the Jack of clear categories the study aima at defining a CARD class that could account for the differential properties of cardinal numerals. Focusing on 3 types of constructional morphology (AIN suffixation as in quatrain... douzaine/-IEME suffixation for ordinal numerals as in deuxieme, troisieme.... )lthe lexical semantics of 'prefixed words' such as bimensuel' or triacide'...) shows the specificity of the CARD constructional system and confirma the hypothesis of a separate category.NANTERRE-BU PARIS10 (920502102) / SudocSudocFranceF

    Responses of diploid and triploid Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas to Vibrio infection in relation to their reproductive status

    No full text
    Several Vibrio species are known to be pathogenic to the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Survival varies according to pathogen exposure and high mortality events usually occur in summer during gametogenesis. In order to study the effects of gametogenetic status and ploidy (a factor known to affect reproduction allocation in oysters) on vibriosis survival, we conducted two successive experiments. Our results demonstrate that a common bath challenge with pathogenic Vibrio splendidus and Vibrio aestuarianus on a mixture of mature, spawning and non-mature oysters can lead to significant mortality. Previous bath challenges, which were done using only non-mature oysters, had not produced mortality. Immunohisto-chemical analyses showed the affinity of Vibrio for gonadic tissues, highlighting the importance of sexual maturity for vibriosis infection processes in oysters. Mortality rate results showed poor repeatability between tanks, however, in this bath challenge. We then tested a standardized and repeatable injection protocol using two different doses of the same combination of two Vibrio species on related diploid and triploid oysters at four different times over a year. Statistical analyses of mortality kinetics over a 6-day period after injection revealed that active gametogenesis periods correspond to higher susceptibility to vibriosis and that there is a significant interaction of this seasonal effect with ploidy. However, no significant advantage of triploidy was observed. Triploid oysters even showed lower survival than diploid counterparts in winter. Results are discussed in relation to differing energy allocation patterns between diploid and triploid Pacific oysters. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

    Development of a duplex Taqman real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of Vibrio splendidus -related and V. aestuarianus strains from bacterial cultures

    No full text
    To enable the rapid and accurate identification of Vibrio splendidus-related and V. aestuarianus strains associated with Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas mortality, we developed a duplex Taqman real-time PCR assay and evaluated its efficacy. This technique proved to be rapid, sensitive, and specific and will be particularly valuable for epidemiologic studies

    Impact of wheat fractions differing by their dietary fibre content and incorporated in several cereal foods on their glycaemic and insulinaemic responses

    No full text
    Meynier A., Champ M., Chauveau P., Barron C., Saulnier L. and Vinoy S. (2015). Impact of wheat fractions differing by their dietary fibre content and incorporated in several cereal foods on their glycemic and insulinemic responses. Dietary Fibre Conference, Paris, 1-3 June 2015.Impact of wheat fractions differing by their dietary fibre content and incorporated in several cereal foods on their glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. 6. International Dietary Fibre Conference (DF15
    • …
    corecore