16,510 research outputs found

    Dead or alive: how the immune system detects microbial viability

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    Analysis of a space--time hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for the advection--diffusion problem on time-dependent domains

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    This paper presents the first analysis of a space--time hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for the advection--diffusion problem on time-dependent domains. The analysis is based on non-standard local trace and inverse inequalities that are anisotropic in the spatial and time steps. We prove well-posedness of the discrete problem and provide a priori error estimates in a mesh-dependent norm. Convergence theory is validated by a numerical example solving the advection--diffusion problem on a time-dependent domain for approximations of various polynomial degree

    How (not) to raise money

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    We show that standard winner-pay auctions are inept fund-raising mechanisms because of the positive externality bidders forgo if they top another's high bid. Revenues are suppressed as a result and remain finite even when bidders value a dollar donated the same as a dollar kept. This problem does not occur in lotteries and all-pay auctions, where bidders pay irrespective of whether they win. We introduce a general class of all-pay auctions, rank their revenues, and illustrate how they dominate lotteries and winner-pay formats. The optimal fund-raising mechanism is an all-pay auction augmented with an entry fee and reserve price

    Demonstration project on epilepsy in Brazil - WHO/ILAE/IBE Global Campaign Against Epilepsy - A foreword

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    In 2002, ASPE (Assistência à Saúde de Pacientes com Epilepsia)* initiated an Epilepsy Demonstration Project (DP) in Brazil as part of the Global Campaign Against Epilepsy "Epilepsy out of the Shadows", led by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE)1-4. Demonstration Projects have been carried out in several countries and their main aim is to develop treatment models for people with epilepsy in primary health care settings, improving the quality of life of people with epilepsy and their families5-9. The project in Brazil has targeted areas in Campinas and São José do Rio Preto municipalities, both in São Paulo State, in Southeastern region8. A task force has been established to assess strategies to expand this nationwide. The DP was carried out in six phases as shown in Figure 1. The Brazilian DP was officially closed during the IV Workshop of the WHO/ILAE/IBE Global Campaign Against Epilepsy "Epilepsy out of the Shadows", held on May 4-5th 2006, in Campinas. The workshop reviewed the results of the project and discussed the establishment of a National Epilepsy Policy. This supplement presents some results from all phases of the Brazilian DP which were discussed during the Workshop. In brief, we believe that the DP had an impact in our society and brought a new perspective on epilepsy. Awareness campaigns are now carried out on September 9th (Epilepsy Awareness Day) annually in many sites around the country. Regulations and Bills related to epilepsy have been proposed in several regions. Epilepsy has been officially adopted as a theme to be considered in elementary education by the Ministry of Education. Currently, a National Epilepsy Programme, endorsed by the main Brazilian non-governmental organizations in the field of epilepsy, is under review at the Ministry of Health. We hope that this will benefit some of the many people with epilepsy in the country and will eventually bring epilepsy out of the shadows in Brazil