3,619 research outputs found

    The Gravitational Hamiltonian in the Presence of Non-Orthogonal Boundaries

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    This paper generalizes earlier work on Hamiltonian boundary terms by omitting the requirement that the spacelike hypersurfaces ÎŁt\Sigma_t intersect the timelike boundary B\cal B orthogonally. The expressions for the action and Hamiltonian are calculated and the required subtraction of a background contribution is discussed. The new features of a Hamiltonian formulation with non-orthogonal boundaries are then illustrated in two examples.Comment: 23 pages, 1 figure, LaTeX. The action is altered to include a corner term which results in a different value for the non-orthogonal term. An additional appendix with Euclidean results is included. To appear in Class. Quant. Gra

    Generalized entropy and Noether charge

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    We find an expression for the generalized gravitational entropy of Hawking in terms of Noether charge. As an example, the entropy of the Taub-Bolt spacetime is calculated.Comment: 6 pages, revtex, reference correcte

    Closed Trapped Surfaces in Cosmology

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    The existence of closed trapped surfaces need not imply a cosmological singularity when the spatial hypersurfaces are compact. This is illustrated by a variety of examples, in particular de Sitter spacetime admits many closed trapped surfaces and obeys the null convergence condition but is non-singular in the k=+1 frame.Comment: 11 pages. To appear in GRG, Vol 35 (August issue

    Open Inflation Without False Vacua

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    We show that within the framework of a definite proposal for the initial conditions for the universe, the Hartle-Hawking `no boundary' proposal, open inflation is generic and does not require any special properties of the inflaton potential. In the simplest inflationary models, the semiclassical approximation to the Euclidean path integral and a minimal anthropic condition lead to Ω0≈0.01\Omega_0\approx 0.01. This number may be increased in models with more fields or extra dimensions.Comment: 10 pages, compressed and RevTex file with one postscript figure, openlet1.p

    A Smooth Exit from Eternal Inflation?

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    The usual theory of inflation breaks down in eternal inflation. We derive a dual description of eternal inflation in terms of a deformed Euclidean CFT located at the threshold of eternal inflation. The partition function gives the amplitude of different geometries of the threshold surface in the no-boundary state. Its local and global behavior in dual toy models shows that the amplitude is low for surfaces which are not nearly conformal to the round three-sphere and essentially zero for surfaces with negative curvature. Based on this we conjecture that the exit from eternal inflation does not produce an infinite fractal-like multiverse, but is finite and reasonably smooth.Comment: 15 pages; v2: added explicit calculation of higher-spin toy-model; v3: minor changes to provide more context, references added, version accepted for publication in JHE

    Enhanced Instability of de Sitter Space in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

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    We show that the addition of a topological Gauss-Bonnet term to the gravitational action can greatly increase the instability of four-dimensional de Sitter space, by favoring the nucleation of black holes. The pair-production rate given by the Euclidean action for the instanton takes the form exp(Delta S) where S is the entropy in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. The coefficient of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the action sets a stability bound on the curvature of empty de Sitter space. For that coefficient in the low-energy effective action of heterotic string theory, the maximal curvature of de Sitter space is in general much lower than the Planck scale.Comment: 8 page