465 research outputs found

    Local modes, local vacuum, local bogoljubov coefficients and the renormalised stress tensor

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    Local modes and local particles are defined at any point in curved space time as those that most resemble Minkowsky modes at that point. It is shown that the renormalised stress tensor is the difference of energy between the physical vacuum and that defined by these local modes.Comment: (talk presented at Journees relativistes 93), 4 pages (LATEX),ULB-TH 09/9

    Gravitational Instanton for Black Hole Radiation

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    Hawking radiation is derived from the existence of a euclidean instanton which lives in the euclidean black hole geometry. Upon taking into account the gravitational field of the instanton itself, its action is exactly equal to one quarter the change in the horizon area. This result also applies to the Schwinger process, the Unruh process, and particle creation in deSitter space. The implications for horizon thermodynamics are discussed.Comment: 10 pages, late

    Purifying noisy entanglement requires collective measurements

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    Known entanglement purification protocols for mixed states use collective measurements on several copies of the state in order to increase the entanglement of some of them. We address the question of whether it is possible to purify the entanglement of a state by processing each copy separately. While this is possible for pure states, we show that this is impossible, in general, for mixed states. The importance of this result both conceptually and for experimental realization of purification is discussed. We also give explicit invariants of an entangled state of two qubits under local actions and classical communication.Comment: 5 pages, Late

    No-go theorems for \psi-epistemic models based on a continuity assumption

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    The quantum state \psi is a mathematical object used to determine the probabilities of different outcomes when measuring a physical system. Its fundamental nature has been the subject of discussions since the inception of quantum theory: is it ontic, that is, does it correspond to a real property of the physical system? Or is it epistemic, that is, does it merely represent our knowledge about the system? Assuming a natural continuity assumption and a weak separability assumption, we show here that epistemic interpretations of the quantum state are in contradiction with quantum theory. Our argument is different from the recent proof of Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph and it already yields a non-trivial constraint on \psi-epistemic models using a single copy of the system in question.Comment: Version 1 contains both theory and an illustrative experiment. Version 2 contains only the theory (the experiment with expanded discussion will be posted separatly at a later date). The main novelty of Version 2 is a detailed comparison in appendix 2 with L. Hardy arXiv:1205.14396. Version 2 is 6 pages of text and 1 figure; v3: minor change

    A family of loss-tolerant quantum coin flipping protocols

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    We present a family of loss-tolerant quantum strong coin flipping protocols; each protocol differing in the number of qubits employed. For a single qubit we obtain a bias of 0.4, reproducing the result of Berl\'{i}n et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062321 (2009)], while for two qubits we obtain a bias of 0.3975. Numerical evidence based on semi-definite programming indicates that the bias continues to decrease as the number of qubits is increased but at a rapidly decreasing rate

    The Extent of Multi-particle Quantum Non-locality

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    It is well known that entangled quantum states can be nonlocal: the correlations between local measurements carried out on these states cannot always be reproduced by local hidden variable models. Svetlichny, followed by others, showed that multipartite quantum states are even more nonlocal than bipartite ones in the sense that nonlocal classical models with (super-luminal) communication between some of the parties cannot reproduce the quantum correlations. Here we study in detail the kinds of nonlocality present in quantum states. More precisely we enquire what kinds of classical communication patterns cannot reproduce quantum correlations. By studying the extremal points of the space of all multiparty probability distributions, in which all parties can make one of a pair of measurements each with two possible outcomes, we find a necessary condition for classical nonlocal models to reproduce the statistics of all quantum states. This condition extends and generalises work of Svetlichny and others in which it was shown that a particular class of classical nonlocal models, the ``separable'' models, cannot reproduce the statistics of all multiparticle quantum states. Our condition shows that the nonlocality present in some entangled multiparticle quantum states is much stronger than previously thought. We also study the sufficiency of our condition.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, journal versio

    Optimal Quantum Cloning Machines

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    We present Quantum Cloning Machines (QCM) that transform N identical qubits into M>NM>N identical copies and we prove that the fidelity (quality) of these copies is optimal. The connection between cloning and measurement is discussed in detail. When the number of clones M tends towards infinity, the fidelity of each clone tends towards the optimal fidelity that can be obtained by a measurement on the input qubits. More generally, the QCM are universal devices to translate quantum information into classical information.Comment: 4 pages, Latex, 1 postscript figure, (very) minor modification

    Bell inequalities for arbitrarily high dimensional systems

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    We develop a novel approach to Bell inequalities based on a constraint that the correlations exhibited by local realistic theories must satisfy. This is used to construct a family of Bell inequalities for bipartite quantum systems of arbitrarily high dimensionality which are strongly resistant to noise. In particular our work gives an analytic description of numerical results of D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, A. Zeilinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 85}, 4418 (2000) and T. Durt, D. Kaszlikowski, M. Zukowski, quant-ph/0101084, and generalises them to arbitrarily high dimensionality.Comment: 6 pages, late

    Violation of local realism vs detection efficiency

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    We put bounds on the minimum detection efficiency necessary to violate local realism in Bell experiments. These bounds depends of simple parameters like the number of measurement settings or the dimensionality of the entangled quantum state. We derive them by constructing explicit local-hidden variable models which reproduce the quantum correlations for sufficiently small detectors efficiency.Comment: 6 pages, revtex. Modifications in the discussion for many parties in section 3, small erros and typos corrected, conclusions unchange
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