105 research outputs found

    Children of Prisoners: Their Situation and Role in Long-Term Crime Prevention

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    Studies suggest that maintaining family ties can help reduce the likelihood of reoffending, and that while parental imprisonment can increase a child’s likelihood to offend, positive responses to the situation can aid the children’s well-being, attitude and attainment. Drawing on findings from the recently completed EU-funded COPING Project on the mental health of children of prisoners, this chapter explores the factors that aid a child’s ability to cope with parental imprisonment and the actions that different stakeholders can take to support them. It identifies some of the mental health impacts at different stages of parental imprisonment, the roles played by non-imprisoned parents/carers and by schools, and suggests options for further clarifying the factors that help and hinder children of prisoners in the short and long term

    Short-Term Effect of Different Teaching Methods on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma for General Practitioners in Jakarta, Indonesia

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    In Indonesia, Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is the most frequent cancer of the head and neck region. At first presentation in the hospital most patients already have advanced NPC. Our previous study showed that general practitioners (GPs) working in Yogyakarta, Indonesia lack the knowledge necessary for early detection of NPC. By providing training on early symptoms of NPC we hope that the diagnosis and referral will occur at an earlier stage. Here we assess the current NPC knowledge levels of GPs in Jakarta, evaluate improvement after training, compare the effectiveness of two training formats, and estimate the loss of recall over a two week period

    A review of multi-component maintenance models with economic dependence

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    In this paper we review the literature on multi-component maintenance models with economic dependence. The emphasis is on papers that appeared after 1991, but there is an overlap with Section 2 of the most recent review paper by Cho and Parlar (1991). We distinguish between stationary models, where a long-term stable situation is assumed, and dynamic models, which can take information into account that becomes available only on the short term. Within the stationary models we choose a classification scheme that is primarily based on the various options of grouping maintenance activities: grouping either corrective or preventive maintenance, or combining preventive-maintenance actions with corrective actions. As such, this classification links up with the possibilities for grouped maintenance activities that exist in practice

    Primary treatment results of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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    INTRODUCTION Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is a major health problem in southern and eastern Asia. In Indonesia NPC is the most frequent cancer in the head and neck area. NPC is very sensitive to radiotherapy resulting in 3-year disease-free and overall survival of approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. Here we present routine treatment results in a prospective study on NPC in a top referral; university hospital in Indonesia. METHODS All NPC patients presenting from September 2008 till January 2011 at the ear, nose and throat (ENT) department of the Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, were possible candidates. Patients were included if the biopsy was a histological proven NPC without distant metastasis and were assessed during counselling sessions prior to treatment, as being able to complete the entire treatment. RESULTS In total 78 patients were included for treatment analysis. The median time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy is 120 days. Forty-eight (62%) patients eventually finished all fractions of radiotherapy. The median duration of the radiotherapy is 62 days for 66 Gy. Median overall survival is 21 months (95% CI 18–35) from day of diagnosis. CONCLUSION The results presented here reveal that currently the treatment of NPC at an Indonesian hospital is not sufficient and cannot be compared to the treatment results in literature. Main reasons for these poor treatment results are (1) a long waiting time prior to the start of radiotherapy, (2) the extended overall duration of radiotherapy and (3) the advanced stage of disease at presentation.Maarten A. Wildeman, Renske Fles, Camelia Herdini, Rai S. Indrasari, Andrew D. Vincent, Maesadji Tjokronagoro, Sharon Stoker, Johan Kurnianda, Baris Karakullukcu, Kartika W. Taroeno- Hariadi, Olga Hamming-Vrieze, Jaap M. Middeldorp, Bambang Hariwiyanto, Sofia M. Haryana, I. Bing Ta

    Mental Health and School Functioning for Girls in the Child Welfare System : the Mediating Role of Future Orientation and School Engagement

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    This study investigated the association between mental health problems and academic and behavioral school functioning for adolescent girls in the child welfare system and determined whether school engagement and future orientation meditated the relationship. Participants were 231 girls aged between 12 and 19 who had been involved with the child welfare system. Results indicated that 39% of girls reported depressive symptoms in the clinical range and 54% reported posttraumatic symptoms in the clinical range. The most common school functioning problems reported were failing a class (41%) and physical fights with other students (35%). Participants reported a mean number of 1.7 school functioning problems. Higher levels of depression and PTSD were significantly associated with more school functioning problems. School engagement fully mediated the relationship between depression and school functioning and between PTSD and school functioning, both models controlling for age, race, and placement stability. Future orientation was not significantly associated with school functioning problems at the bivariate level. Findings suggest that school engagement is a potentially modifiable target for interventions aiming to ameliorate the negative influence of mental health problems on school functioning for adolescent girls with histories of abuse or neglect

    Planning for precarity? Experiencing the carceral continuum of imprisonment and reentry

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    Drawing on qualitative interviews with formerly imprisoned people in Canada, we show that most prisoners experience reentry into communities with little to no pre-release planning, and must rely upon their own resourcefulness to navigate fragmented social services and often informal supports. In this respect, our research findings contrast with U.S. punishment and society scholarship that highlights a complex shadow carceral state that extends the reach of incarceration into communities. Our participants expressed a critical analysis of the failure of the prison to address the needs of prisoners for release planning and supports in the community. Our findings concur with other empirical studies that demonstrate the enduring effects of the continuum of carceral violence witnessed and experienced by prisoners after release. Thus, reentry must be understood in relation to the conditions of confinement and the experience of incarceration itself. We conclude that punishment and society scholarship needs to attend to a nuanced understanding of prisoner reentry and connect reentry studies to a wider critique of the prison industrial complex, offering more empirical evidence of the failure of prisons

    A large genome-wide association study of age-related macular degeneration highlights contributions of rare and common variants.

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Nature Publishing Group via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3448Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, with limited therapeutic options. Here we report on a study of >12 million variants, including 163,714 directly genotyped, mostly rare, protein-altering variants. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and rare variants (P < 5 × 10(-8)) distributed across 34 loci. Although wet and dry AMD subtypes exhibit predominantly shared genetics, we identify the first genetic association signal specific to wet AMD, near MMP9 (difference P value = 4.1 × 10(-10)). Very rare coding variants (frequency <0.1%) in CFH, CFI and TIMP3 suggest causal roles for these genes, as does a splice variant in SLC16A8. Our results support the hypothesis that rare coding variants can pinpoint causal genes within known genetic loci and illustrate that applying the approach systematically to detect new loci requires extremely large sample sizes.We thank all participants of all the studies included for enabling this research by their participation in these studies. Computer resources for this project have been provided by the high-performance computing centers of the University of Michigan and the University of Regensburg. Group-specific acknowledgments can be found in the Supplementary Note. The Center for Inherited Diseases Research (CIDR) Program contract number is HHSN268201200008I. This and the main consortium work were predominantly funded by 1X01HG006934-01 to G.R.A. and R01 EY022310 to J.L.H

    Tumor cell survival pathways activated by photodynamic therapy: a molecular basis for pharmacological inhibition strategies

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