2,432 research outputs found

    The sectorial impact of commodity price shocks in Australia

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    It is found that commodity price shocks largely affect the mining, construction and manufacturing industries in Australia. However, the financial and insurance sector is found to be relatively unaffected. Mining industry profits and nominal output substantially increase in response to commodity price shocks. Construction output is also found to increase significantly, especially in response to a bulk commodities shock, as a result of increased demand for resource related construction. Increased demand for construction has a positive spillover effect to parts of the manufacturing industry that supply the construction sector with intermediate inputs, such as the non-metallic mineral sub industry. In contrast, other manufacturing sub industries with only tenuous links to the resources sector such as textiles, clothing and other manufacturing, are relatively unresponsive to commodity price shocks

    General Relativistic Radiative Transfer

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    We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron star atmospheres

    A new formal solution of the radiative transfer in arbitrary velocity fields

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    We present a new formal solution of the Lagrangian equation of radiative transfer that is useful in solving the equation of radiative transfer in the presence of arbitrary velocity fields. Normally a term due to the inclusion of the wavelength derivative in the Lagrangian equation of radiative transfer is associated with a generalised opacity. In non-monotonic velocity fields, this generalised opacity may become negative. To ensure that the opacity remains positive, this term of the derivative is included in the formal solution of the radiative transfer problem. The new definition of the generalised opacity allows for a new solution of the equation of radiative transfer in the presence of velocity fields. It is especially useful for arbitrary velocity fields, where it effectively prevents the occurrences of negative generalised opacities and still allows the explicit construction of the Lambda-operator of the system needed for an accelerated Lambda-iteration. We performed test calculations, where the results of old, established solutions were compared with the new solution. The relative deviations never exceeded 1% and so the new solution is indeed suitable for use in radiative-transfer modelling. Non-monotonic velocity fields along photon paths frequently occur in three-dimensional hydrodynamical models of astrophysical atmospheres. Therefore, the formal solution will be of use for multidimensional radiative transfer and has immediate applications in the modelling of pulsating stars and astrophysical shock fronts.Comment: Astronomy & Astrophysics, in press 8 figure

    The Rise Times of High and Low Redshift Type Ia Supernovae are Consistent

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    We present a self-consistent comparison of the rise times for low- and high-redshift Type Ia supernovae. Following previous studies, the early light curve is modeled using a t-squared law, which is then mated with a modified Leibundgut template light curve. The best-fit t-squared law is determined for ensemble samples of low- and high-redshift supernovae by fitting simultaneously for all light curve parameters for all supernovae in each sample. Our method fully accounts for the non-negligible covariance amongst the light curve fitting parameters, which previous analyses have neglected. Contrary to Riess et al. (1999), we find fair to good agreement between the rise times of the low- and high-redshift Type Ia supernovae. The uncertainty in the rise time of the high-redshift Type Ia supernovae is presently quite large (roughly +/- 1.2 days statistical), making any search for evidence of evolution based on a comparison of rise times premature. Furthermore, systematic effects on rise time determinations from the high-redshift observations, due to the form of the late-time light curve and the manner in which the light curves of these supernovae were sampled, can bias the high-redshift rise time determinations by up to +3.6/-1.9 days under extreme situations. The peak brightnesses - used for cosmology - do not suffer any significant bias, nor any significant increase in uncertainty.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures, Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal. Also available at http://www.lbl.gov/~nugent/papers.html Typos were corrected and a few sentences were added for improved clarit

    Dark Energy Accretion onto a Black Hole in an Expanding Universe

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    By using the solution describing a black hole embedded in the FLRW universe, we obtain the evolving equation of the black hole mass expressed in terms of the cosmological parameters. The evolving equation indicates that in the phantom dark energy universe the black hole mass becomes zero before the Big Rip is reached.Comment: 7 pages, no figures, errors is correcte

    Model-based aberration corrected microscopy inside a glass tube

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    Microscope objectives achieve near diffraction-limited performance only when used under the conditions they are designed for. In non-standard geometries, such as thick cover slips or curved surfaces, severe aberrations arise, inevitably impairing high-resolution imaging. Correcting such large aberrations using standard adaptive optics can be challenging: existing solutions are either not suited for strong aberrations, or require extensive feedback measurements, consequently taking a significant portion of the photon budget. We demonstrate that it is possible to pre-compute the corrections needed for high-resolution imaging inside a glass tube based on a priori information only. Our ray-tracing based method achieved over an order of magnitude increase in image contrast without the need for a feedback signal.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. Submitted to Optics Expres

    On the Limits of Gate Elimination

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    Although a simple counting argument shows the existence of Boolean functions of exponential circuit complexity, proving superlinear circuit lower bounds for explicit functions seems to be out of reach of the current techniques. There has been a (very slow) progress in proving linear lower bounds with the latest record of 3 1/86*n-o(n). All known lower bounds are based on the so-called gate elimination technique. A typical gate elimination argument shows that it is possible to eliminate several gates from an optimal circuit by making one or several substitutions to the input variables and repeats this inductively. In this note we prove that this method cannot achieve linear bounds of cn beyond a certain constant c, where c depends only on the number of substitutions made at a single step of the induction
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