39 research outputs found

    Gated rotation mechanism of site-specific recombination by Ď•C31 integrase

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    Integrases, such as that of the Streptomyces temperate bacteriophage ϕC31, promote site-specific recombination between DNA sequences in the bacteriophage and bacterial genomes to integrate or excise the phage DNA. ϕC31 integrase belongs to the serine recombinase family, a large group of structurally related enzymes with diverse biological functions. It has been proposed that serine integrases use a “subunit rotation” mechanism to exchange DNA strands after double-strand DNA cleavage at the two recombining att sites, and that many rounds of subunit rotation can occur before the strands are religated. We have analyzed the mechanism of ϕC31 integrase-mediated recombination in a topologically constrained experimental system using hybrid “phes” recombination sites, each of which comprises a ϕC31 att site positioned adjacent to a regulatory sequence recognized by Tn3 resolvase. The topologies of reaction products from circular substrates containing two phes sites support a right-handed subunit rotation mechanism for catalysis of both integrative and excisive recombination. Strand exchange usually terminates after a single round of 180° rotation. However, multiple processive “360° rotation” rounds of strand exchange can be observed, if the recombining sites have nonidentical base pairs at their centers. We propose that a regulatory “gating” mechanism normally blocks multiple rounds of strand exchange and triggers product release after a single round

    A leucine aminopeptidase is involved in kinetoplast DNA segregation in <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i>

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    The kinetoplast (k), the uniquely packaged mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatid protists is formed by a catenated network of minicircles and maxicircles that divide and segregate once each cell cycle. Although many proteins involved in kDNA replication and segregation are now known, several key steps in the replication mechanism remain uncharacterized at the molecular level, one of which is the nabelschnur or umbilicus, a prominent structure which in the mammalian parasite Trypanosoma brucei connects the daughter kDNA networks prior to their segregation. Here we characterize an M17 family leucyl aminopeptidase metalloprotease, termed TbLAP1, which specifically localizes to the kDNA disk and the nabelschur and represents the first described protein found in this structure. We show that TbLAP1 is required for correct segregation of kDNA, with knockdown resulting in delayed cytokinesis and ectopic expression leading to kDNA loss and decreased cell proliferation. We propose that TbLAP1 is required for efficient kDNA division and specifically participates in the separation of daughter kDNA networks

    Direct interaction of aminopeptidase A with recombination site DNA in Xer site-specific recombination.

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    Xer site-specific recombination at ColE1 cer converts plasmid multimers into monomers, thus ensuring the heritable stability of ColE1. Two related recombinase proteins, XerC and XerD, catalyse the strand exchange reaction at a 30 bp recombination core site. In addition, two accessory proteins, PepA and ArgR, are required for recombination at cer. These two accessory proteins are thought to act at 180 bp of accessory sequences adjacent to the cer recombination core to ensure that recombination only occurs between directly repeated sites on the same molecule. Here, we demonstrate that PepA and ArgR interact directly with cer, forming a complex in which the accessory sequences of two cer sites are interwrapped approximately three times in a right-handed fashion. We present a model for this synaptic complex, and propose that strand exchange can only occur after the formation of this complex

    X-ray structure of aminopeptidase A from Escherichia coli and a model for the nucleoprotein complex in Xer site-specific recombination.

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    The structure of aminopeptidase A (PepA), which functions as a DNA-binding protein in Xer site-specific recombination and in transcriptional control of the carAB operon in Escherichia coli, has been determined at 2.5 A resolution. In Xer recombination at cer, PepA and the arginine repressor (ArgR) serve as accessory proteins, ensuring that recombination is exclusively intramolecular. In contrast, PepA homologues from other species have no known DNA-binding activity and are not implicated in transcriptional regulation or control of site-specific recombination. PepA comprises two domains, which have similar folds to the two domains of bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). However, the N-terminal domain of PepA, which probably plays a significant role in DNA binding, is rotated by 19 degrees compared with its position in LAP. PepA is a homohexamer of 32 symmetry. A groove that runs from one trimer face across the 2-fold molecular axis to the other trimer face is proposed to be the DNA-binding site. Molecular modelling supports a structure of the Xer complex in which PepA, ArgR and a second PepA molecule are sandwiched along their 3-fold molecular axes, and the accessory sequences of the two recombination sites wrap around the accessory proteins as a right-handed superhelix such that three negative supercoils are trapped

    Recombination at ColE1 cer requires the Escherichia coli xerC gene product, a member of the lambda integrase family of site-specific recombinases.

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    Site-specific recombination at the plasmid ColE1 cer site requires the Escherichia coli chromosomal gene xerC. The xerC gene has been localized to the 85-min region of the E. coli chromosome, between cya and uvrD. The nucleotide sequences of the xerC gene and flanking regions have been determined. The xerC gene encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 33.8 kDa. This protein has substantial sequence similarity to the lambda integrase family of site-specific recombinases and is probably the cer recombinase. The xerC gene is expressed as part of a multicistronic unit that includes the dapF gene and two other open reading frames

    Xer-mediated site-specific recombination at cer generates Holliday junctions in vivo.

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    Normal segregation of the Escherichia coli chromosome and stable inheritance of multicopy plasmids such as ColE1 requires the Xer site-specific recombination system. Two putative lambda integrase family recombinases, XerC and XerD, participate in the recombination reactions. We have constructed an E. coli strain in which the expression of xerC can be tightly regulated, thereby allowing the analysis of controlled recombination reactions in vivo. Xer-mediated recombination in this strain generates Holliday junction-containing DNA molecules in which a specific pair of strands has been exchanged in addition to complete recombinant products. This suggests that Xer site-specific recombination utilizes a strand exchange mechanism similar or identical to that of other members of the lambda integrase family of recombination systems. The controlled in vivo recombination reaction at cer requires recombinase and two accessory proteins, ArgR and PepA. Generation of Holliday junctions and recombinant products is equally efficient in RuvC- and RuvC+ cells, and in cells containing a multicopy RuvC+ plasmid. Controlled XerC expression is also used to analyse the efficiency of recombination between variant cer sites containing sequence alterations and heterologies within their central regions

    Escherichia coli XerC recombinase is required for chromosomal segregation at cell division

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    XerC is a site-specific recombinase of the bacteriophage lambda integrase family that is encoded by xerC at 3700 kbp on the genetic map of Escherichia coli. The protein was originally identified through its role in converting multimers of plasmid ColE1 to monomers; only monomers are stably inherited. Here we demonstrate that XerC also has a role in the segregation of replicated chromosomes at cell division. xerC mutants form filaments with aberrant nucleotides that appear unable to partition correctly. A DNA segment (dif) from the replication terminus region of the E. coli chromosome binds XerC and acts as a substrate for XerC-mediated site-specific recombination when inserted into multicopy plasmids. This dif segment contains a region of 28 bp with sequence similarity to the crossover region of ColE1 cer. The cell division phenotype of xerC mutants is suppressed in strains deficient in homologous recombination, suggesting that the role of XerC/dif in chromosomal metabolism is to convert any chromosomal multimers (arising through homologous recombination) to monomers

    Xer-mediated site-specific recombination in vitro.

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    The Xer site-specific recombination system acts at ColE1 cer and pSC101 psi sites to ensure that these plasmids are in a monomeric state prior to cell division. We show that four proteins, ArgR, PepA, XerC and XerD are necessary and sufficient for recombination between directly repeated cer sites on a supercoiled plasmid in vitro. Only PepA, XerC and XerD are required for recombination at psi in vitro. Recombination at cer and psi in vitro requires negative supercoiling and is exclusively intramolecular. Strand exchange at cer produces Holliday junction-containing products in which only the top strands have been exchanged. This reaction requires the catalytic tyrosine residue of Xer C but not that of XerD. Recombination at psi gives catenated circular resolution products. Strand exchange at psi is sequential. XerC catalyses the first (top) strand exchange to make a Holiday junction intermediate and XerD catalyses the second (bottom) strand exchange

    xerB, an Escherichia coli gene required for plasmid ColE1 site-specific recombination, is identical to pepA, encoding aminopeptidase A, a protein with substantial similarity to bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase.

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    The heritable stability of ColE1 is dependent on a site-specific recombination system which acts to resolve plasmid multimers into monomers. This plasmid stabilizing recombination system requires the presence in cis of the ColE1 cer region, plus at least two trans-acting factors encoded by the xerA and xerB genes of Escherichia coli. The xerB gene has been cloned and sequenced and found to encode a polypeptide with a calculated mol. wt of 55.3 kd. The predicted amino acid sequence of this protein exhibits striking similarity to that of bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase (53 kd). The biological significance of this similarity is corroborated by genetic and biochemical evidence which suggests that xerB is identical to the E.coli and S.typhimurium pepA genes that encode aminopeptidase A
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