10,404 research outputs found

### Ultraviolet absorption by interstellar gas at large distances from the galactic plane

Eighteen high dispersion International Ultraviolet Exploration spectra of 6 stars in the large magellanic cloud (LMC) 3 stars in the small magellanic cloud (SMC) and 2 foreground stars were studied. Fourteen spectra cover the wavelengths lambda 1150-2000 A and 4 cover lambda 1900-3200 A. All the Magellanic Cloud star spectra exhibit exceedingly strong interstellar absorption lines due to a wide range of ionization stages at galactic velocities and at velocities associated with the LMC or SMC. The analysis is restricted to the Milky Way absorption features. Toward the LMC stars, the strong interstellar lines have a positive velocity extension, which exceeds the extension recorded toward the SMC stars. The most straightforward interpretation of these velocity extensions is obtained by assuming that gas at large distances away from the plane of the galaxy participates in the rotation of the galaxy as found in the galactic disk

### Heap Formation in Granular Media

Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find the formation of heaps in
a system of granular particles contained in a box with oscillating bottom and
fixed sidewalls. The simulation includes the effect of static friction, which
is found to be crucial in maintaining a stable heap. We also find another
mechanism for heap formation in systems under constant vertical shear. In both
systems, heaps are formed due to a net downward shear by the sidewalls. We
discuss the origin of net downward shear for the vibration induced heap.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures available upon request, Plain TeX, HLRZ-101/9

### Two scenarios for avalanche dynamics in inclined granular layers

We report experimental measurements of avalanche behavior of thin granular
layers on an inclined plane for low volume flow rate. The dynamical properties
of avalanches were quantitatively and qualitatively different for smooth glass
beads compared to irregular granular materials such as sand. Two scenarios for
granular avalanches on an incline are identified and a theoretical explanation
for these different scenarios is developed based on a depth-averaged approach
that takes into account the differing rheologies of the granular materials.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, accepted to Phys. Rev. Let

### Angle of Repose and Angle of Marginal Stability: Molecular Dyanmics of Granular Particles

We present an implementation of realistic static friction in molecular
dynamics (MD) simulations of granular particles. In our model, to break
contacts between two particles, one has to apply a finite amount of force,
determined by the Coulomb criterion. Using a two dimensional model, we show
that piles generated by avalanches have a {\it finite} angle of repose
$\theta_R$ (finite slopes). Furthermore, these piles are stable under tilting
by an angle smaller than a non-zero tilting angle $\theta_T$, showing that
$\theta_R$ is different from the angle of marginal stability $\theta_{MS}$,
which is the maximum angle of stable piles. These measured angles are compared
to a theoretical approximation. We also measure $\theta_{MS}$ by continuously
adding particles on the top of a stable pile.Comment: 14 pages, Plain Te

### Heavy Quark Fragmentation to Baryons Containing Two Heavy Quarks

We discuss the fragmentation of a heavy quark to a baryon containing two
heavy quarks of mass $m_Q\gg\Lambda_{\rm QCD}$. In this limit the heavy quarks
first combine perturbatively into a compact diquark with a radius small
compared to $1/\Lambda_{\rm QCD}$, which interacts with the light hadronic
degrees of freedom exactly as does a heavy antiquark. The subsequent evolution
of this $QQ$ diquark to a $QQq$ baryon is identical to the fragmentation of a
heavy antiquark to a meson. We apply this analysis to the production of baryons
of the form $ccq$, $bbq$, and $bcq$.Comment: 9 pages, 1 figure included, uses harvmac.tex and epsf.tex, UCSD/PTH
93-11, CALT-68-1868, SLAC-PUB-622

### Quantum depletion of collapsing Bose-Einstein condensates

We perform the first numerical three-dimensional studies of quantum field
effects in the Bosenova experiment on collapsing condensates by E. Donley et
al. [Nature 415, 39 (2002)] using the exact experimental geometry. In a
stochastic truncated Wigner simulation of the collapse, the collapse times are
larger than the experimentally measured values. We find that a finite
temperature initial state leads to an increased creation rate of uncondensed
atoms, but not to a reduction of the collapse time. A comparison of the
time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Wigner methods for the more
tractable spherical trap shows excellent agreement between the uncondensed
populations. We conclude that the discrepancy between the experimental and
theoretical values of the collapse time cannot be explained by Gaussian quantum
fluctuations or finite temperature effects.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, replaced with published versio

### Low-Altitude Reconnection Inflow-Outflow Observations during a 2010 November 3 Solar Eruption

For a solar flare occurring on 2010 November 3, we present observations using
several SDO/AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) passbands of an erupting flux rope
followed by inflows sweeping into a current sheet region. The inflows are soon
followed by outflows appearing to originate from near the termination point of
the inflowing motion - an observation in line with standard magnetic
reconnection models. We measure average inflow plane-of-sky speeds to range
from ~150-690 km/s with the initial, high-temperature inflows being the
fastest. Using the inflow speeds and a range of Alfven speeds, we estimate the
Alfvenic Mach number which appears to decrease with time. We also provide
inflow and outflow times with respect to RHESSI count rates and find that the
fast, high-temperature inflows occur simultaneously with a peak in the RHESSI
thermal lightcurve. Five candidate inflow-outflow pairs are identified with no
more than a minute delay between detections. The inflow speeds of these pairs
are measured to be 10^2 km/s with outflow speeds ranging from 10^2-10^3 km/s -
indicating acceleration during the reconnection process. The fastest of these
outflows are in the form of apparently traveling density enhancements along the
legs of the loops rather than the loop apexes themselves. These flows could
either be accelerated plasma, shocks, or waves prompted by reconnection. The
measurements presented here show an order of magnitude difference between the
retraction speeds of the loops and the speed of the density enhancements within
the loops - presumably exiting the reconnection site.Comment: 31 pages, 13 figures, 1 table, Accepted to ApJ (expected publication
~July 2012

### LIGO End-to-End simulation Program

A time-domain simulation program has been developed to provide an accurate description of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. This is being utilized to build a model of LIGO with the aim of aiding in the shakedown and integration of the interferometer subsystems, and ultimately the optimization of detector sensitivity

- â€¦