15 research outputs found

### Complexity of C_k-Coloring in Hereditary Classes of Graphs

For a graph F, a graph G is F-free if it does not contain an induced subgraph isomorphic to F. For two graphs G and H, an H-coloring of G is a mapping f:V(G) -> V(H) such that for every edge uv in E(G) it holds that f(u)f(v)in E(H). We are interested in the complexity of the problem H-Coloring, which asks for the existence of an H-coloring of an input graph G. In particular, we consider H-Coloring of F-free graphs, where F is a fixed graph and H is an odd cycle of length at least 5. This problem is closely related to the well known open problem of determining the complexity of 3-Coloring of P_t-free graphs.
We show that for every odd k >= 5 the C_k-Coloring problem, even in the precoloring-extension variant, can be solved in polynomial time in P_9-free graphs. On the other hand, we prove that the extension version of C_k-Coloring is NP-complete for F-free graphs whenever some component of F is not a subgraph of a subdivided claw

### Subexponential-Time Algorithms for Finding Large Induced Sparse Subgraphs

Let C and D be hereditary graph classes. Consider the following problem: given a graph G in D, find a largest, in terms of the number of vertices, induced subgraph of G that belongs to C. We prove that it can be solved in 2^{o(n)} time, where n is the number of vertices of G, if the following conditions are satisfied:
- the graphs in C are sparse, i.e., they have linearly many edges in terms of the number of vertices;
- the graphs in D admit balanced separators of size governed by their density, e.g., O(Delta) or O(sqrt{m}), where Delta and m denote the maximum degree and the number of edges, respectively; and
- the considered problem admits a single-exponential fixed-parameter algorithm when parameterized by the treewidth of the input graph.
This leads, for example, to the following corollaries for specific classes C and D:
- a largest induced forest in a P_t-free graph can be found in 2^{O~(n^{2/3})} time, for every fixed t; and
- a largest induced planar graph in a string graph can be found in 2^{O~(n^{3/4})} time

### Completeness for the Complexity Class âˆ€ âˆƒ R and Area-Universality

Exhibiting a deep connection between purely geometric problems and real algebra, the complexity class âˆƒR plays a crucial role in the study of geometric problems. Sometimes âˆƒR is referred to as the â€˜real analogâ€™ of NP. While NP is a class of computational problems that deals with existentially quantified boolean variables, âˆƒR deals with existentially quantified real variables. In analogy to Î p2 and Î£p2 in the famous polynomial hierarchy, we study the complexity classes âˆ€âˆƒR and âˆƒâˆ€R with real variables. Our main interest is the AREA UNIVERSALITY problem, where we are given a plane graph G, and ask if for each assignment of areas to the inner faces of G, there exists a straight-line drawing of G realizing the assigned areas. We conjecture that AREA UNIVERSALITY is âˆ€âˆƒR -complete and support this conjecture by proving âˆƒR - and âˆ€âˆƒR -completeness of two variants of AREA UNIVERSALITY. To this end, we introduce tools to prove âˆ€âˆƒR -hardness and membership. Finally, we present geometric problems as candidates for âˆ€âˆƒR -complete problems. These problems have connections to the concepts of imprecision, robustness, and extendability

### An exact algorithm for the generalized list T-coloring problem

Discrete Algorithm

### An exact algorithm for the generalized list T-coloring problem

Discrete AlgorithmsThe generalized list T-coloring is a common generalization of many graph coloring models, including classical coloring, L(p,q)-labeling, channel assignment and T-coloring. Every vertex from the input graph has a list of permitted labels. Moreover, every edge has a set of forbidden differences. We ask for a labeling of vertices of the input graph with natural numbers, in which every vertex gets a label from its list of permitted labels and the difference of labels of the endpoints of each edge does not belong to the set of forbidden differences of this edge. In this paper we present an exact algorithm solving this problem, running in time O*((Ï„+2)n), where Ï„ is the maximum forbidden difference over all edges of the input graph and n is the number of its vertices. Moreover, we show how to improve this bound if the input graph has some special structure, e.g. a bounded maximum degree, no big induced stars or a perfect matching

### Fixing Improper Colorings of Graphs

International audienceIn this paper we consider a variation of a recoloring problem, called the r-Color-Fixing. Let us have some non-proper r-coloring $\varphi$ of a graph G. We investigate the problem of finding a proper r-coloring of G, which is "the most similar" to $\varphi$, i.e. the number k of vertices that have to be recolored is minimum possible. We observe that the problem is NP-complete for any râ€‰\geqâ€‰3, but is Fixed Parameter Tractable (FPT), when parametrized by the number of allowed transformations k. We provide an Oâˆ—(2^n) algorithm for the problem (for any fixed r) and a linear algorithm for graphs with bounded treewidth. Finally, we investigate the fixing number of a graph G. It is the maximum possible distance (in the number of transformations) between some non-proper coloring of G and a proper one

### Parameterized Complexity of Bandwidth of Caterpillars and Weighted Path Emulation

In this paper, we show that Bandwidth is hard for the complexity class W[t] for all tâˆˆ N, even for caterpillars with hair length at most three. As intermediate problem, we introduce the Weighted Path Emulation problem: given a vertex-weighted path PN and integer M, decide if there exists a mapping of the vertices of PN to a path PM, such that adjacent vertices are mapped to adjacent or equal vertices, and such that the total weight of the pre-image of a vertex from PM equals an integer c. We show that Weighted Path Emulation, with c as parameter, is hard for W[t] for all tâˆˆ N, and is strongly NP-complete. We also show that Directed Bandwidth is hard for W[t] for all tâˆˆ N, for directed acyclic graphs whose underlying undirected graph is a caterpillar